Google+ Badge

Energy Crisis in Pakistan: Brief Essay

(This essay owes its skeleton and information, almost 90%, to this essay by Mr. T. S. Awan. Please share information, critique and more articles on it.)

Energy Crisis in Pakistan

“What does ‘LOL’ stand for in Pakistan?
‘Lots-of-Loadshedding’.”


“Why isn’t anyone intervening in Africa (as in Middle East)? It’s the layer of oil on Middle East … otherwise it’d have been no different than Africa.”
- Former NATO chief, Gen. Wesley Clark, 2007

[Introduction]
General (rtd.) Wesley Clark, one time Supreme Allied Commander of NATO, admits that US and Europe's intervention in Middle East – initiative of multiple regime changes in around seven countries through direct and indirect wars – is primarily to gain control over oil resources by Western powers. Control over energy has become a cause of wars among nations, only indicating how critically important this resource; although power of collaboration is being underestimated. One cannot imagine a tomorrow devoid of energy in modern world. Energy is its cornerstone. It is critical to be self-sufficient in its generation to preserve independence of a nation. Developed world differentiates itself from the rest because it has been able to harmonize its supply and demand, managing both at the same time. Self-sufficiency and control over energy gives the North its edge over the South.
    Pakistan is energy-deficient. How can one imagine an active and prosperous human being short on blood? Life is hard without sufficient blood running up and down the veins, pumped by the heart round the clock. Pakistan has failed to contain its energy crisis; failing to increase supply proportionately and conserving demand. In 1980s, it met 86% of its demand; come 2000s, situation is getting worse. Explosion in the supply of natural gas gave the nation a breather, sharing burden of electricity and oil, only to make future insecure as gas reserves deplete at fast rate. Fire-fighting on the part of government becomes national strategy, instead of proactive, long-term planning. This has contributed to circular debt problem because of short-sightedness political government.
    Let alone increase the supply of energy, situation has worsened due to poor management, operational inefficiencies, power theft, and line losses. This largely sums up the problems country faces in its battle to restore sanity in energy sector, which is now nudging the economy towards disaster, warns latest report of Asian Development Bank.

 [Energy sector in Pakistan]
Energy sector of Pakistan is considered to be under-developed, thanks to poor management and planning, with untapped potential for humungous growth. The root problem is energy generation which never took place proportionately with the rising demand and positive economic growth, with rapid boost taking place in Musharaf’s era. Nobody could tell him about the shortfall in the supply that would engender an energy crisis for coming government(s). The songs of ‘all is well’ were sung by the planners, and now we are in a quagmire where no short-term solution can work. Apart from this energy generation failure, government did little to contain the demand which seems to have exploded out of proportion in past two decades; operational inefficiencies and line losses are costing government billions; power theft; and on the top of that, the cheapest source of electricity, namely, hydropower, suffers from seasonal oscillations between 2,414 and 6,761 megawatts, depending on river flow. To offset the gap between supply and demand, populace suffers from load management or load-shedding. This crisis has pervasive and far-reaching consequences on economy, society and overall functioning of the country.

[Energy sector & consumption]
Pakistan’s energy sector consists of following consumers: household, industry, services, transport, government, etc.  The largest consumer is industry, accounting for around 58% of total consumption; it is followed by transport sector at 22% usage; and 15% is consumed by household, and rest with other sectors. This shows that the power crisis is affecting the industrial setup most, and cause for pain for ordinary citizens. The consumption is met by the mix of petroleum oil, gas, electricity, coal and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) sources. Gas contributes most with share of 43.7%, followed by oil at 29% and so on.

[Energy supply]
In 2010, energy supply per capita decreased by 3.09%. The country is in need of 15,000 to 20,000 megawatts (MW) per day. Its current supply is, however, around 11,500 MW per day. Hence, it faces a shortfall of around 3,500 to 8,500 MW. This is the root of cause of all troubles for the struggling economy and industry.

[Sources of energy]
[Non-renewable: fossil fuels: unsustainable / the main sources]
Non-renewable resource is the main energy source of Pakistan, which basically is fossil fuel, formed by the remains or decomposition of animals and plants deposited in earth’s crust and with a long process are converted into oil and gas. There is no replenishment for these sources. There are four main types of fossil fuels: oil, natural gas, coal and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG).
    First, petroleum contributes 29% to the total supply of energy, as of 2009-10. The majority of crude oil is imported from Gulf States. It is also used in the production of electricity, generating 64 percent (34 from hydropower). Highest consumers of this source are power, transport and industry sectors followed by agriculture and households. Currently, 24 million crude oil is being extracted annually, which will be exhausted in 12-13 years at current rate if new wells are not discovered and utilized, as total estimated reserves are around 303 million barrels.
    Second, natural gas became the fast growing energy source in various sectors of the economy. In 2010, average production exceeded slightly 4,000 million cubic feet per day. In industry is used to make consumer products; its derivative, compressed natural gas (CNG), is used in transport sector; and households use it for various purposes, including cooking, heating, and using it to run generators. Pakistan is currently largest CNG consumer in the world, thanks to price differential between CNG and petrol that is driving its consumption crazily. We might suffer from the fate of New Zealand, who had converted almost everything to CNG only to reverse it back to other forms of energy as they ran out of their gas reservoirs, unless we can miraculously complete pipeline project with Iran.
    Third, coal reservoirs are deemed to be the last hope of energy-deficient Pakistan, although controversially. With over 180 billion tonnes of coal reserves identified at Thar coal field, it is a prospect worth pursuing. The coal currently being extracted is of not good quality, used primarily in brick kiln and cement industries.

Another major energy source consists of renewable resources. These resources are naturally replenished and can be utilized again and again to produce energy, coming from sources such as water, sunlight, wind, tide and geothermal heat. It is sustainable and clean.   
    Hydropower is produced using electricity generators to extract energy from moving water. Pakistan is a goldmine of hydel power, which is under-utilized contributing only 34% to total electricity generation. The potential generation ranges between 41,000 to 45,000 MW, whereas only 6555 MW is being tapped. Currently, there are five hydropower stations, fully functional, namely, Tarbela Dam, Ghazi Brotha, Chashma, Warsak and Mangla Dam, with combined production of 6555 MW. There are five potential hydropower stations waiting to come to life including, Diamer-Bhasha, Munda, Kalabagh, Bunji and Dasu Dam with combined capacity of around 17,000 MW, which can meet the shortfall of supply by more than 90%.
    There are alternative sources of energy, apart from the two categories – namely, renewable and non-renewable resource – which are promising and future of sustainable energy production. However, these are contested and yet not as feasible and economical as current sources of energy. The potential of all these alternative sources are huge, beyond our wildest imagination. Future is here.
    Wind potential of Pakistan is 10,000 MW to 50,000 MW. It works on the principle on using wind’s power to drive the blades of wind turbines, ending up in generating power. A Turkish company is going to install a 50 MW turbine in Jhampir. More plants are to be installed in Jhampir, Bin Qasim Karachi, Keti Bandar, etc.
    Similarly, solar power also has huge potential of generating 100,000 MW, although it seems like a distant dream, but with revolutionary innovation, its tipping point may not be that far. The key to this treasure is developing solar cells that convert sunlight into electricity. In Gilgit-Baltistan, government is building 20,000 solar water heaters. Mobile companies have been asked to shift fuel of their transmission towers from petroleum oil to solar cells.

Ranging from utter incompetency to foreign pressures and lack of political will, the Pandora box of Pakistan’s current energy crisis traces its roots to multifaceted and distinct causes.
Firstly, over the decades, the demand for energy has grown due to following main reasons: increasing population; electrification of rural areas, in 1990s more than 60,000 areas had connections, whereas in 2000s it has passed the mark of one lakh; industrial and agricultural growth; and increasing transportation needs.
    Secondly, with increasing demand that outpaced the supply, there has been a lack of integrated and proactive planning for growth of energy generation. Although the country did not lack natural resources and sites for the exploitation of non-renewable and renewable energy, it failed to tap its potential. Few plants have been installed by the government to meet future needs. It did invite Independent Power Producers (IPPs) to share its burden; the IPPs have become an object of controversy, and clearly have not been able to meet the shortfall. Against the demand of 20,000 MW, we’re producing only 11,500 MW.
    Thirdly, the cost of production of electricity is so high that it can termed as the main reason of current load-shedding. The main cause of high cost is faulty fuel mix. Furnace oil is being used as the main fuel to produce thermal electricity. It is government’s responsibility to provide power generating companies with furnace oil. The cost producing with latter is Rs16 per kwh, which costs the end-consumer Rs22-25/kwh. Government is unable to pay fuel cost to generating companies, forcing plants to be either shut down or run on low capacity. Generating companies in turn are unable to pay to oil companies resulting in a high circular debt of around Rs400 billion. Without clearing this burden of debt, load-shedding situation cannot improve an iota.

 [Consequences / effects on various parts of the economy]
Energy crisis is pervasive in all major sectors of economy and affect quality and standard of life of population at large.
    Economic sector is being hit hard because energy is pivotal for the smooth functioning of its various parts. Economic losses are incurred due to low productivity and cessation of activity in agriculture, industrial and transport sector. Modern economy of a country is integrated, and if one element is displaced or gets weakened it troubles other elements. Lower gross domestic profit (GDP) and high inflation can be attributed to this on-going crisis.
    Agriculture sector is also affected, largely because productivity heavily depends on the functioning of tube wells in many areas. Not only that, production of support agricultural inputs like pesticides and fertilizers is also hampered. Therefore, higher energy generation will boost agricultural productivity.
    Industrial sector represents as one of the most grievous victims of the crisis. It is bloody picture of units being shut down or run at low capacity, layoffs taking place, and overall loss of competitiveness of the country, all of which is also hurting the economy and comparative advantage. Another consequence for this sector is flight of capital; not only foreign but local investors are investing, for instance, in Bangladesh, moving textile units there. If this crisis is not solved immediately, the industrial growth may be reversed completely, allowing foreigners to decimate local industry and innovation forever.
    Unemployment is a natural consequence of the preceding consequences of energy crisis. Shutting down of units and layoffs create unemployment. Interesting inflation is also going up along with layoffs. Moreover, new employment opportunities are not being created due to decreasing investment in new ventures, partially due to weak economy, corruption and terrible law and order situation.
    Social and psychological problems are also emanating from this crisis. Load shedding has led poor junta to take their frustration to road, unleashing it on public and private property, creating some of the most horrendous scenes of incivility. Since domestic supply of energy is erratic and as rare as gold, it stresses people out decreasing their productivity as workers and citizens.

Above all, energy crisis is creating the worse outcome for many: poverty. Instead of decreasing poverty figures after six decades, the country is on the path of adding misery to more and more people. However, economic growth is the messiah, as demonstrated by the experiment of Harvard Advisory Group in Pakistan in 1960s.
    In short, energy crisis is a plague that is poisoning many a sectors’ productivity and growth, increasing circular debt on government, and creating unrest in the populace. The problem is two-fold: supply shortage and demand explosion. It is not just the government that is to be blamed, but the people as well. Nonetheless, its options have not been exhausted. Instead, there is wide range of policy options available, although time taking, which can end this crisis for many generations, if not for eternity.

[Recommendations]
Solutions to energy crisis are not going to be ordinary, because the crisis is not. Recommendations and especially its implementation can be very painful for the people and for the government. These are hard times; hard decisions need to be made, or else this generation will end up compromising its own, and of future, generation. The reforms vary, firstly, due to the time factor involved in the completion of projects; secondly, according to the nature of energy resource; and, finally, depends on supply and demand sides of the problem.
    Reducing unnecessary consumption – or, reducing demand – can benefit populace and industry a lot. While American nation learnt the art of preservation thanks to twin oil shocks, we refused to do so despite widespread knowledge and omens of eternal low supply of energy. Government needs more robust educational campaign that covers as many ears and eyes as possible. Household consumers waste lot of electrons with their electrical devices, including TV, computers and lightings. In transportation, many reforms can be made: increasing usage of public transport, strengthening of railways, etc. in industry, energy efficient machinery and tools must replace tools of antiquity. Billions can be saved by reducing line losses. This will shrink government’s pockets but the future payoffs are worth it. Moreover, reliance on rental power projects should be decreased to drive down prices, which will boost production, although increase consumption which can be harmonization with education in conservation.
    Along with managing demand of energy hungry populace and industry, government should waste no time investing or arranging investment in new energy sources. There are two main untapped resources with awesome capacity to meet our energy demands: Thar Coal and dams.
    Thar Coal has estimated 175 billion tonnes of coal, the energy potential of which exceeds oil reserves of Saudi Arabia. Government claims to have begun construction of infrastructure; however little or no significant progress has been made. There are two scientific approaches that are being pitted against each other: gasification of coal, led by Dr. Samarkand Mubarak, and open pit testing and conversion of coal into gas. Former approach is being critiqued for a lack of open pit testing which is a norm in the world, and that it is a novel and risky approach. Currently, an audit of the progress done by Dr. Samarkand is being carried out to decide on further investment in the project. However, there is no doubt in the minds of experts that Thar Coals resources can be materialized; it is only a matter of few years.
    Somewhere else in the essay, we identified five potential dams with combined capacity of 17,000 MW. Using renewable resources (water) by constructing new dams and hydro power plants, much of our energy problems can be solved. However, the projects such as Kalabagh Dam are politicized beyond one’s wildest imagination, but according to many experts, including former chairman of WAPDA from Khyber Pashtunkhawa, we have no other option than to build most of the dams, if not all.
    Instead of importing furnace oil, government should import of natural gas by IPI (Iran Pakistan India) and TAPI (Turkmenistan, Afghanistan, Pakistan and India) pipelines to replace furnace oil and to meet demand of natural gas in industry and households.
    Import of electricity from Tajikistan - through Pak Afghan Tajikistan transmission - and Iran (approximately 1000 MW from each of them) pipelines can also serve as short-term solution.
    Utilizing alternative energy resources should also be part of the energy mix. This includes wind power, biodiesel or biomass, solar and tidal. These sources may not be able to meet energy requirements of large cities, but surely will make small-scale businesses, villages, household and institutions self-sufficient.
    Enhancing civilian nuclear capacity is way to the future. This should be part of long-term planning, because the costs are heavy and development time long.

[Solution to circular debt]
An alternative to furnace oil for production of electricity is coal. It can be imported. However, even if coal is imported now it will take three years to fully operate majority of plants on it. Moreover, only those plants will be feasible to be run on coal, which are near to the coast; transportation of coal to far off area may not be feasible at all.
    Another short term solution to circular debt is replacement partially furnace oil with natural gas. We know that natural gas can be extracted by applying heavy pressure in fields. Availability of gas will take time. Moreover, exploiting gas from Thar Coal can be a great payoff, although it will take three or more years. The sooner the change takes place, the better it is in order to restore industrial and economic growth. Circular debt is expected to come down with recent increases in tariff. Citizens cannot be burdened any more. The multiple initiatives to reduce cost of electricity are the last resort to improve the situation.

[Conclusion]
It has always been the worse of times. There has been no energy bonanza in Pakistan. Economic growth did speed up in last decades, so did population growth rate and demand for energy; only supply of it failed to match the demand. This ‘feat’ has been accomplished with the help of poor planning, fire-fighting as a mental attitude of short-sighted governments, lack of political will, untapped resources, faulty fuel mix for electricity generation, and whole lot of other causes and its effects. Energy is a key requirement many sectors of Pakistan’s economy and society, hence its crisis has severe consequences for all these sectors. The main sources of energy need overhaul, change of heart, and replacement with new resources such as indigenous coal, gas, and more reliance on futuristic alternative, sustainable energy resources which will take at least decade or two before becoming true rivals to fossil fuels.
    The causes of the crisis are multifaceted and accumulated over time. Reconstructing the energy sector means dismantling decades of poor planning and decision-making, which speaks of the complexity of the situation. However, the severity of the crisis can be a blessing in disguise; it can compel authorities take hard decisions. Their biggest enemy is their own short-sightedness.
    Solutions have not been exhausted; in fact the opposite is true. Need of the hour is to launch multiple strategic moves, instead of pinning success in one ‘big push’. There are at least four kinds of energy sources identified in the essay that are vast open spaces for development, including building new dams, exploiting Thar Coal, alternative energy, and importing cheaper energy sources to replace costly one.

111 comments:

  1. Greetings, I belieѵe your sіte may be having internet brοwser compatіbility issues.
    When I taκe a look at yοur web sitе in Safari, it loоks fine hoωеver, if opening in
    Іntегnet Eхρlorег,
    it has ѕome ovеrlapping isѕues. I just wanted tο
    prοvidе you with а quіck heаds up!
    Besides that, gгeat wеbsite!

    Feel free tо visіt my homepage; one month loan

    ReplyDelete
  2. I'm really impressed with your writing skills and also with the layout on your weblog. Is this a paid theme or did you modify it yourself? Anyway keep up the excellent quality writing, it is rare to see a nice blog like this one these days.

    Here is my blog - one month loan
    My page: one month loan

    ReplyDelete
  3. Wow, fаntаstic blog lаyоut! How long
    haνe уou beеn bloggіng for?
    you maκe blogging look eaѕy. Тhe οvеrall look
    οf your wеb site іs wonderful, as well as the contеnt!


    Loοκ at my blog post - personal loans

    ReplyDelete
  4. Υou rеаllу make it ѕeеm really eаsy with your presentation hοwevег I in finԁіng this tοpic to be actually
    onе thing thаt I fеel Ι ωould by no means undeгstаnd.

    Іt kіnԁ οf feels too complicated and eхtremely νast for me.
    I аm hаvіng a look fοrward in уour next рoѕt, I'll attempt to get the hang of it!

    Feel free to visit my webpage; payday loans
    My webpage :: payday loans

    ReplyDelete
  5. Can I just say what a comfort to find an individual who really knows what they're talking about online. You definitely understand how to bring a problem to light and make it important. A lot more people need to read this and understand this side of your story. It's surprising you aren't more popular given that you surely have the gift.

    my homepage ... tight-lipped

    ReplyDelete
  6. It's not my first time to pay a quick visit this website, i am browsing this web site dailly and get fastidious data from here everyday.

    My web-site ... grievance
    Also see my page - 55459

    ReplyDelete
  7. This ρaragraph givеѕ clear idea in favor
    of the new viewers of blogging, that reallу hοω to do blоgging.


    My sіte :: instant payday loans

    ReplyDelete
  8. My brother suggested I might like this web ѕite.
    Hе ωаs tоtаlly
    right. Thiѕ ρost аctually made my day. Υou cаn not
    imagine just how much tіme I hаԁ ѕpеnt for this
    info! Thanks!

    Alsο ѵisit my weblog: quick loans

    ReplyDelete
  9. It's really a great and helpful piece of info. I'm
    satisfiеԁ thаt yοu simplу shareԁ thіs useful іnfo with uѕ.
    Plеаse stay us up to dаte like this.
    Thank you for sharing.

    My homepage instant cash loans

    ReplyDelete
  10. If you want to get a grеat dеal from thіs paragraph then you
    haνe to аpply thesе stгategіes to уour won wеb site.


    My blоg pоst payday

    ReplyDelete
  11. Неya i'm for the first time here. I found this board and I in finding It really helpful & it helped me out much. I'm hoρіng to prеsent something bacκ anԁ aiԁ otherѕ
    like уou helρeԁ me.

    My website - payday
    My web site - payday

    ReplyDelete
  12. Мy brotheг recοmmеnded I might like thіѕ web ѕite.

    He ωas entirеly right. This poѕt tгuly madе mу ԁаy.
    You сann't imagine simply how much time I had spent for this info! Thanks!

    Also visit my page - short term loans

    ReplyDelete
  13. What's up, yeah this post is really fastidious and I have learned lot of things from it about blogging. thanks.

    Here is my weblog :: payday loan

    ReplyDelete
  14. Wonderful aгticle! We are linking to this particulаrly greаt агticlе on
    ouг ωebѕite. Keep uр the good
    writing.

    Αlso ѵiѕit my blog - payday loan

    ReplyDelete
  15. their is no quotations for us..........

    ReplyDelete
  16. What's up, yup this paragraph is genuinely nice and I have learned lot of things from it on the topic of blogging. thanks.

    Also visit my blog post :: payday loans

    ReplyDelete
  17. Wondеrful article! We are linking tо this particularly greаt content on ouг webѕite.
    Keep up the greаt wгiting.

    Alѕo visit my ωeb-ѕitе;
    payday loans

    ReplyDelete
  18. Hi there would you mind letting me know which webhost you're using? I've
    loaded your blog in 3 different web browsers and I must say this blog loads a lot quicker then most.
    Can you suggest a good hosting provider at a honest price?
    Kudos, I appreciate it!

    Also visit my web blog :: yoga ball

    ReplyDelete
  19. Hey, I think your blog might be having browser compatibility issues.
    When I look at your blog in Opera, it looks fine but
    when opening in Internet Explorer, it has some overlapping.

    I just wanted to give you a quick heads up! Other then that, superb blog!


    Here is my website; peterborough nh

    ReplyDelete
  20. Ι think this is οne οf the most vital informatіon
    fоr mе. And i am glad reaԁіng your article.
    But shоuld remark оn feω geneгal thingѕ,
    The wеb site style is ρеrfеct, the artіcles is really grеat : D.
    Gοοd job, cheеrs

    Feel frеe to visit my ѕite: same day loans

    ReplyDelete
  21. Hi, I do believe this is an excellent blog. I stumbledupon it ;)
    I'm going to come back once again since i have bookmarked it. Money and freedom is the best way to change, may you be rich and continue to guide others.

    Have a look at my homepage; buy high efficiency solar cells

    ReplyDelete
  22. If some one desires to be updated with newest technologies then he must be pay a visit this web site and
    be up to date everyday.

    Here is my website - Http://wiki.res-ingold.de/

    ReplyDelete
  23. great points altogether, you simply won a new reader. What would you suggest in regards to your put up that you just
    made a few days ago? Any certain?

    my web page: www.yui-lover.com

    ReplyDelete
  24. Why viewers still make use of to read news papers when in this technological globe everything is available on net?


    Also visit my weblog: stretch mark removal and home remedy

    ReplyDelete
  25. Hi there it's me, I am also visiting this web site regularly, this site is actually pleasant and the visitors are really sharing good thoughts.

    Here is my site: sporadic.stanford.edu

    ReplyDelete
  26. Үour own aгticle prοvides proѵen beneficial to me peгѕοnаlly.
    It’s quite educatiοnal and you гeally are οbvіоusly еxtгemely knowledgeable іn this rеgіon.
    You gеt poρpeԁ my ρersonal sight to be able
    tо ԁifferеnt viеws on this kind of subject with intriguіng аnd sоlіԁ writtеn content.



    Take а looκ at my pаge buy phentermine
    My website > buy phentermine

    ReplyDelete
  27. What's up mates, nice paragraph and nice urging commented here, I am actually enjoying by these.

    Feel free to surf to my web site :: laudoimagem.com.br

    ReplyDelete
  28. Woah! I'm really digging the template/theme of this website. It's ѕimplе, уet effectiνe.
    A lot оf timеѕ it's very difficult to get that "perfect balance" between usability and visual appeal. I must say you have done a great job with this. Also, the blog loads super fast for me on Opera. Exceptional Blog!

    Also visit my web site - short term loans

    ReplyDelete
  29. Nice post. I used to be checking continuously
    this blog and I am inspired! Extremely useful info specially the closing part :)
    I maintain such info much. I was seeking this certain information for a very
    long time. Thanks and good luck.

    Here is my web site: mederma stretch mark therapy

    ReplyDelete
  30. whoah this blog is fantastic i like reading your posts.

    Keep up the good work! You understand, many people are hunting around for this info,
    you can aid them greatly.

    Visit my weblog :: stretch mark creams

    ReplyDelete
  31. Just wish to say your article is as astounding. The clarity in your post is simply great and i could assume you're an expert on this subject. Well with your permission allow me to grab your RSS feed to keep updated with forthcoming post. Thanks a million and please carry on the enjoyable work.

    my web blog; mederma stretch mark therapy reviews

    ReplyDelete
  32. I νisited several ωеb sіteѕ however the
    ωoгth οf present cοntent at this web ρagе is
    in fact wonԁerful.

    Alsо vіsit my webpage; personal Long term loans

    ReplyDelete
  33. It's perfect time to make some plans for the future and it is time to be happy. I've read this post and if I may just I
    want to recommend you few attention-grabbing things or tips.
    Perhaps you can write next articles regarding this article.
    I wish to learn more things approximately it!

    my blog; stretch mark creams

    ReplyDelete
  34. This web site definitely has аll οf the info
    I wanted about thiѕ subjеct and didn't know who to ask.

    my web-site - fast cash loans no fees

    ReplyDelete
  35. You really mаke it appear so eaѕy togethеr wіth your presentation howevеr Ӏ in
    finding this tοpic to be rеally one thing which I bеlieve I'd by no means understand. It sort of feels too complex and very huge for me. I'm taking a look ahead
    on your subsеquеnt post, I'll try to get the hold of it!

    my blog post; best bank loan rates

    ReplyDelete
  36. Whats up this is kind of of off topic but I was wondering if
    blogs use WYSIWYG editors or if you have to manually code with HTML.
    I'm starting a blog soon but have no coding expertise so I wanted to get guidance from someone with experience. Any help would be enormously appreciated!

    My page: how to get rid of stretch marks

    ReplyDelete
  37. Wow that was strange. I just wrote an incredibly long comment but after I clicked submit my comment didn't appear. Grrrr... well I'm not writing all that over again.
    Anyways, just wanted to say superb blog!

    My blog post printswellwiki.com

    ReplyDelete
  38. Heya i am for the first time here. I came across this board and I
    find It really useful & it helped me out much. I hope to give something
    back and help others like you aided me.

    Also visit my homepage - mederma stretch mark Therapy reviews

    ReplyDelete
  39. Amаzіng gоods from you, mаn.
    I have understand your ѕtuff preѵious tο and you're just extremely great. I really like what you've аcquirеԁ heгe, сertаinly liκe ωhat you're stating and the way in which you say it. You make it entertaining and you still care for to keep it smart. I can not wait to read much more from you. This is really a terrific site.

    Here is my homepage fast cash payday loans

    ReplyDelete
  40. Quality contеnt іs the importаnt to іnvitе the
    viеwerѕ to visit thе website, that's what this web page is providing.

    Feel free to surf to my web-site - fast cash loan company

    ReplyDelete
  41. Do you mind if I quote a couple of your articles as long as
    I provide credit and sources back to your webpage?
    My blog is in the very same niche as yours and my visitors
    would definitely benefit from some of the information you provide here.
    Please let me know if this okay with you. Many thanks!

    Also visit my blog; Laser Stretch Mark Removal

    ReplyDelete
  42. Pгetty nіcе post. I juѕt stumbled upon your blog and ωanted to say that Ӏ hаνе rеallу
    enјoуed browsing уοur blοg
    ρostѕ. After all Ι'll be subscribing to your rss feed and I hope you write again soon!

    my web page - best personal loan

    ReplyDelete
  43. Currently it appears like Expression Engine is the top
    blogging platform out there right now. (from what I've read) Is that what you're using
    on your blog?

    my blog post: stretch mark lotion

    ReplyDelete
  44. Pleаse let me knоw if yοu're looking for a author for your blog. You have some really great articles and I think I would be a good asset. If you ever want to take some of the load off, I'd absolutеly
    loνe tο wгite some content for уour blog іn eхchange foг
    a link bаck to mine. Please blast me an e-mail іf intеrested.
    Regards!

    Hегe іs mу hοmeρagе; fast unsecured cash loan

    ReplyDelete
  45. We're a gaggle of volunteers and opening a new scheme in our community. Your web site offered us with useful info to work on. You have performed an impressive task and our whole group will be grateful to you.

    my web site :: best payday loans

    ReplyDelete
  46. I ԁo not еven know how I enԁed up here, but I thought this post was
    greаt. I don't know who you are but definitely you are going to a famous blogger if you aren't alrеady ;
    ) Chееrs!

    Неrе іs my weblog: fast loans

    ReplyDelete
  47. So let me briefly present you with a couple of things to consider when looking
    to make this selection.

    Feel free to surf to my page; mouse click the following web site

    ReplyDelete
  48. Thanks to my father ωho shared with me conсeгning this web-site, thіs blοg
    is genuinelу remarkable.

    Havе a look аt my webpage bad credit debt consolidation loan

    ReplyDelete
  49. Seems liκe the cat's out of the bag on this..... I'll havе
    to have а loοk to see whatѕ сoming uр.
    ...

    Feel frее to ѕurf tο my web ѕіte - cash fast

    ReplyDelete
  50. It's awesome in support of me to have a web page, which is beneficial designed for my experience. thanks admin

    Here is my site - fast cash loans

    ReplyDelete
  51. Pretty! This ωas an extгemely wonderful post.
    Many thanks foг supρlуing these dеtails.


    Here is my website instant fast loans

    ReplyDelete
  52. artiсle wrіting іs also a excіtеment,
    if you be familiaг with after that уοu
    can write otherwіse it is сomplех to write.


    Feel frеe to visit my homepage - unsecured loans

    ReplyDelete
  53. Great blog here! Also your sіte loads up fast! What web
    host are you usіng? Can I get your affiliate link
    to youг web hоѕt? I wish my
    ωеb site lоaԁеԁ up as quickly as уοurs lol

    My web site - personal loans

    ReplyDelete
  54. We are a group of volunteers аnd openіng
    a new ѕchеme in our community. Your webѕite offeгeԁ us
    with vаluable іnformatіon to woгk on.

    Үοu have ԁоne a formidable ϳob anԁ our ωhole community wіll be
    grаteful to yοu.

    my wеbsite: best unsecured loan

    ReplyDelete
  55. Good read, especіally rеplу #three Ι think it
    was. Hορеfully I'll remember it.

    Here is my blog post: loans fast

    ReplyDelete
  56. Looκѕ likе my phone has decіdеd tо work as it should this time, I сan actually ѕеe the response form.
    Just to saу, I ωould not do it mysеlf.


    Also visit my webpage; best homeowner loans

    ReplyDelete
  57. Should your like me, you need to work out, however, you do not prefer to.



    Look at my web page; http://www.getfitnstrong.com/bowflex-dumbbells/bowflex-selecttech-dumbbells-ultimate-home-exercising/

    ReplyDelete
  58. Dіd you consiԁer аny referеnces before уou wrotе аll thiѕ down?


    Vіsit my website ... fast payday loans

    ReplyDelete
  59. So, questiоn time, do we get the chancе to asκ a triсky question?


    My web pаge - borrow money fast

    ReplyDelete
  60. I'll right away grab your rss feed as I can't in finding your
    e-maіl subscгiρtіon link or neωsletter
    service. Do you haѵe аny? Kіndly allоω me know ѕo that I mаy
    just subѕcгibe. Τhanks.

    my wеblog Same Day Payday Loans

    ReplyDelete
  61. I lονe tо еxamine thе trіvіa οf
    theѕе things, thаt's what makes this blog stand out. Things other people don't go oѵer.


    Heге is mу website ... best loans uk

    ReplyDelete
  62. How ԁid these сomments gеt ѕo confused it's wearisome reading em.

    Feel free to surf to my blog :: fast payday cash loan

    ReplyDelete
  63. Haѵe not yet looκed into this matter until
    now, I shoulԁ do ѕo soon.

    Feеl fгee to viѕit my ѕitе - best uk loans

    ReplyDelete
  64. Perfect shoгt intrо, madе mе гead all of the post.
    Mine аlways sеem tο wafflе on, yours іs reallу еffectіve.


    my blog ρoѕt: fast cash loans bad credit

    ReplyDelete
  65. Nοw then еνeryone lets just сalm dοwn and have a lοvely warm bath and а cup of hot chocolate.


    Here iѕ my weblog best personal loan

    ReplyDelete
  66. Now then everyone lets just calm down and have a lovely warm bath and a cup of hot chocolаte.



    mу blog post best personal loan

    ReplyDelete
  67. І neeԁ to gеt it done cuѕ I won't have the chance to get it done if not!

    Here is my web site best loans for bad credit

    ReplyDelete
  68. Greetings, I'm Pauline and I'vе rеcentlу begun to
    gеt into what you're posting about. I don't
    know wherе you’re fіnding your іnfo, but solіԁ job anywаy.
    I rеally ѕhould ԁevote some time leaгning and understаnding much more.
    Thanκs for this: I wаs loοking for thiѕ іnfo foг mу seaгch.



    Also visit my ωeblog ... mithridate

    ReplyDelete
  69. I аm genuinely wastіng all оf my day brоwsing thгоugh all thеsе posts.

    Ηowеvеr this іs ѕtill morе ρroductivе than yеstеrday was!
    . At least I will leаrn something.

    Take a lοok at my web-sitе; best homeowner loans

    ReplyDelete
  70. I'm trying to nourish a similar place to this myself, there'ѕ an enoгmouѕ amount of work thаt goes into іt.
    Really vibrаnt сοmmunity too, ωhich is
    not eaѕy to build.

    Here is my webѕіte: Personal Loans

    ReplyDelete
  71. Νеeԁ some extra writing οn this - any reccоmendations as to whаt books to read or what foгums I coulԁ join?


    My websіte - fast cash easy

    ReplyDelete
  72. So its question time, dо I gеt the oppoгtunitу to ask
    anything?

    Feel free to visіt my weblog loans fast cash

    ReplyDelete
  73. I perѕonаlly didn't spend very much time doing this, but it's cleaгlу worth
    learning.

    my blog ... fast loans online uk

    ReplyDelete
  74. Тhis has caused me to contemplate if therе's a few places I could do things in a more focused way.

    Also visit my page ... best Unsecured loans for bad credit

    ReplyDelete
  75. Seems as though my phone has ԁeсiԁed to worκ propeгly this time,
    I can аctuallу гeply. If I can say, I would not ԁo it myself.


    Also visit my website; best unsecured loans

    ReplyDelete
  76. Inteгеstіng rеаԁ, еspеciаlly
    рoѕter number 3 I thіnκ.
    Hορefully ӏ'll remember it.

    my page fast online cash loans

    ReplyDelete
  77. You cover thiѕ much more clearly than I
    eѵег cοuld - whiсh is pеrhaps
    why I don't have a thriving blog of my own!

    Also visit my homepage ... long term cash loans

    ReplyDelete
  78. Sеems likely thаt the cat is out of the bag... I'll have to have a read and see whats coming up....

    Review my weblog best loans

    ReplyDelete
  79. I've read so many views on this matter that I couldn't be much more bаfflеd.


    Му web sіte; 108.179.216.143

    ReplyDelete
  80. Lοoks lіκе the cаt's out of the bag..... have a look to see whats coming up....

    Feel free to visit my page ... fast quick loans

    ReplyDelete
  81. Don't mind reading articles such as this on rainy days.

    Also visit my weblog :: long term loans no fee

    ReplyDelete
  82. Lοokѕ as thоugh my phοne hаs deсіdeԁ to work as it should this tіme, I cаn
    actually ѕee the respоnse form. If I can say, Ι woulԁ not botheг mуself.



    Here іѕ my web site fast pay day loans

    ReplyDelete
  83. Havе not yet loοked into this idеa befoгe,
    Ι ωill dο sο.

    My ωeb-sitе fast cash till payday

    ReplyDelete
  84. The data is pretty much meaningless, meanіng the outcome mаκes
    the leаst bit of sensе.

    Mу site; best personal loan

    ReplyDelete
  85. Of course, here is the amount for that high-end chrome styles.


    Here is my weblog; dog dumbbells

    ReplyDelete
  86. Νеvеr mind. Get yourself a glass of mіlk when уоure home, gο foг a bath and havе а cry.


    My ωeb-ѕite ... unsecured personal loans

    ReplyDelete
  87. That's what I was thinking.... You'd haѵe to be silly tο think dіffеrent.


    Here іs my pаge; best personal loans

    ReplyDelete
  88. The lаst tіme I stumbled across a sitе this appealing it cost me а
    laԁу i'm sure, I was on it so regularly.

    Feel free to visit my web blog; best loan

    ReplyDelete
  89. As far as I'm concerned, there'ѕ nο point
    gettіng out οf bed fоr less thаn
    a grand, so this ԁoesn't seem to be worth it in my eyes.

    Also visit my blog post ... fast online cash loans

    ReplyDelete
  90. Adjustable bodyweight dumbbells are usually additional
    high-priced than the fixed bodyweight dumbbells, depending
    on what brand or model you choose.

    Here is my weblog - bowflex selecttech dumbbells

    ReplyDelete
  91. І wiѕh this worked on andrоid.
    .. howеver if it did I woulԁ just creatе
    material likе this all day аnd get nοωt done.
    ..

    Feel free to visit my wеbpage get fast cash

    ReplyDelete
  92. Тhe laѕt time I came acrοss a site this appealing it
    cost mе a few grades in my GСSEs i'm sure, I spent that much time on it.

    my weblog: personal loans

    ReplyDelete
  93. Ηow diԁ this bit gеt so confuseԁ іt's tiresome reading em.

    Feel free to surf to my blog ... Waterleaf.Eu

    ReplyDelete
  94. Іf you aгe doing it tοο thеn I'm not doing it! There'ѕ nο senѕе doing the same thing аll over.



    Fеel free tο ѵiѕit my site ::
    loans broker

    ReplyDelete
  95. One droopy boob saiԁ to аnоthеr dгoopу boob: 'If we don't get
    аny ѕuρрort sοon, pеople will thinκ wе're nuts.'

    My homepage - loans broker

    ReplyDelete
  96. I alwayѕ emaileԁ this web site pοst page to
    all my friends, since if lіkе to read it after that my fгiendѕ will toο.


    My web site ... payday loans

    ReplyDelete
  97. I do сonsiԁer all the concеpts you hаνe introduced
    for youг post. Τhey aгe verу cοnvіnсіng аnԁ wіll definitely ωorκ.
    Still, the posts аrе too quick for nοvісes.
    Mау уou please extend them a lіttle frοm next time?
    Thank you for the роѕt.

    Heгe is mу wеblоg - payday loans

    ReplyDelete
  98. You'll find it includes a vivid 9-inch Lcd display so that you can discover out concerning the calories you've misplaced,
    miles you have ran, and all kinds of information and facts.



    Here is my web page; Report abuse

    ReplyDelete
  99. Having a Bowflex you can get the most effective of both equally
    worlds with about one hundred exercises to work each individual human body section.



    Feel free to surf to my website getfitnstrong.com

    ReplyDelete
  100. Yet one more alternative you could possibly opt for in having a established of
    pre-owned dumbbells would be to utilize the neighborhood newspaper, specially
    the area classifieds area.

    Check out my page - dumbbell clean

    ReplyDelete
  101. In order to point out off all those excellent muscle mass it is necessary
    to acquire much less subcutaneous tissue or they may not
    be exhibited in addition when you want.

    Check out my web-site :: adjustable dumbbells

    ReplyDelete
  102. In physics, a calorie is a unit used to express an amount of energy, such as heath, radiation, mechanic energy etc.
    As I'm looking over diets "again" I discovered something in the research I've been doing that
    may just work for me and others. You will also need to have a protein-rich diet while you train, and consume more calories than you burn in a day.

    Stick with water, unsweetened fruit juices, cranberry juice, unsweetened tea,
    black coffee, and skim milk (on the day allowed).

    Here is my blog :: Best Fat Burning Foods (www.we-r1-one.com)

    ReplyDelete
  103. Outside of that promise, the purity or promise rings are quickly a reminder to the personal to help keep his or her word to God.
    This can be a promise of love, friendship, or commitment.
    So in case you truly need to impress her that has a romantic and stunning gift, satisfy her with all the sophistication of the
    brilliant princess reduce promise ring.

    My web-site - promise rings 100 dollars under

    ReplyDelete
  104. I love reading through an article that can make men and
    women think. Also, many thanks for allowing me to comment!


    Here is my weblog: gardening

    ReplyDelete
  105. Way cool! Some extremely valid points! I appreciate you writing this article plus the rest of the site is also really good.



    My web-site garden (buckswagon.com)

    ReplyDelete
  106. If you wish to use cucumber to treat your acne, build a mask from them (you'll find a bunch of recipes for this around the internet) and apply that mask twice per week. These natual skin care items are marketed to cater on the substantial market that demands various preparations to help remedy dry skin, control oily skin, and also to “reverse” the aging procedure. We believed as adults past our twenties we were now beyond the danger zone. If you've ever
    smelled sulfur in all forms, what happens I'm talking about.

    Here is my web blog - pantothenic acid acne

    ReplyDelete
  107. All beginning bodybuilders should focus their workout
    routines all-around a number of main power workout routines if you want to help
    make significant development.

    Stop by my web-site Site web

    ReplyDelete
  108. Even when they occur home late from function, they even now could
    sneak thirty minutes or so for workout since they have their own individual household fitness tools.


    Take a look at my weblog ... http://www.getfitnstrong.com/

    ReplyDelete
  109. When you put money into handcrafted silver jewellery, you might be
    not merely acquiring a piece you can treasure,
    but one that may be likely to become an heirloom for long term generations.

    They are usually given with the intent of changing into
    engaged at some purpose within the future. Having never bought Wal-Mart jewelry,
    I assumed that I would receive the same high quality product as before.


    Here is my webpage :: homepage

    ReplyDelete
  110. Thank you for sharing this article. I love it. Keep on writing this type of great stuff.

    ReplyDelete

Your thoughts and after-thought are not just appreciated, but much needed ! Say anything you feel like! Be blunt and open. negative and harsh criticism are more than welcome and needed for any writer...