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Java code made by friend for my home work ;)


Smart people outsource to learn faster.

Thank you Zain Bhai, i don't know if you can read this rusty blog. Although there are no marks for this question given for brainstorming.

____________________

Question: A person is 40 years now. He has 32 teeth at the moment. At every passing odd year, his 2 teeth fall and an every passing even year, his 1 tooth falls. At what age, he will be toothless?

Code:

{
int a=40; b=32; z=0; c=0;
for(x=1; x<=21; x=x+1);
{
if(b!=0)
{
if(x%2==0)
{
b=b-1
c=c+1
}
else
{
if(x%2==1)
{
b=b-2
c=c+1
}
}
}
y=c+a
system.out.print(y)
}

Prophet's enduring Wish

Prophet has been reported saying: "I wish, Surah Yasin is in every Muslim's heart."

He also said that who ever recites it would get purified of all previous sins.

May Allah give us taufiq to memorize it and recite daily.

Vending Machines: A Dream Gone Sour

Dawn Lahore, FRIDAY, SEPTEMBER 24, 2010. See page # 10, read an article by Miwa Suzuki.

Now, i bought this book on starting up a business of vending machine, which i didn't know about the time i bought it. Since it was published by a magazine called Entrepreneur and was about entrepreneurship, so i bought it blindly, also it was quite cheap. "People respond to incentives."

Today I read this article (see top) about flourishing and much saturated vending machine market in Japan, with only 2.5 million drink-selling machines generating 27 billion dollars last year. They've placed it everywhere from streets to the 'icy summits of Mount Fuji'.

So, this seems like a dream business idea. Pakistan's is filled with the absence of these machines. We can do reverse engineering and reinvent and redefine what a vending machine is, and spread it everywhere!

There's one little problem, and difference b/w how things work in Japan and Pakistan. In Japan, people are not the likely to crime than in Pakistan. That's why they've spread it everywhere.

I talked about this v machine to the cook at home. I surprised him how they're selling chilled bananas with mind-reading devices (that can tell with 75% success rate what you'd like most to purchase), and he said, "Yahan tou banday nahi miltay, machine kya bachay gi!" ('Here people are missing from home, who cares about a vending machine.')

I stopped day-dreaming and went back to my Philosopher's Corner in search of a billion dollar idea!

Breaking the Ice: Benchmarking Army Personnel's Social Networking

My friend comes to my home, and asks me for help. He wants me to count people in my neighborhood whom i know. I struggled to name any at all, but eventually 3 people came to my mind in a town of of over a lac people, i presume, at least! I said to him that i'm in trouble. I ain't no good at knowing my neighbours, this is a serious lacking from Islamic perspective. So i asked him, how to penetrate and break the ice with these people in this modern town.

Remember, its a characteristic of modern cities, according to sociologists, that communal life doesn't exist there. In modern cities, neighbours usually don't know each other much, but people are very active socially on networking platforms (offline it mentioned, but online as well). What a paradox.

He suggested me a tested tip: Send a formal letter with minimum words, in most elegant manners, to your neighbor calling them on a tea. This is a practice of many an Army people who do this when they come into a new place.

I'm writing the letter as a BETA version here.

______________________________

House # ABC
Street # Alif. Bay. Pay
Mr/Mrs _________

Assalamualaekum!

I'm Muhammad Umer Toor, a business student at a university in Lahore. I'm living in ______ with my father. I'm new here, so I want to have chat with you over a cup of tea at my home.

This is mobile # ________. My notify me your arrival date and time, and we'll catch up anytime of your choice.

Regards
Muhammad Umer Toor
[university name]
External Researcher @ R&D Labs,
Kirana Bar School.

Extreme Sun, Extreme Man

Sunspot.

For past one century, for past one decade, humanity has seen such crises bigger than any crisis in civilizational history, other than the flood of Nuh or such incidents. Conditions in world have become extreme producing extreme reactions by people of any world-view. One important 'out of control factor' is the catalytic effect of Sun's energy on human mind, just as sun plays a predominant - which is too small a word - in every physical happening and variation; just as sun can destroy space satellites, annihilate electricity in Canada, nullify semiconductors - it also tinkers with sensitive electric currents of human brain.

If we see past 250 years of history of sun's activity - its storms, its 'sunspots' (which emit electro-magnetic rays and flares out of it) - it has reached its peak in 20th century (see photo below in which timeline is given along with sunspot cycles). Its heat and energy emissions have become more intense than anytime before. Sultan B. Mehmood, a Pakistani atomic scientist, could not understand why the effects of sun and its magnanimous variations should not be studied on human mind and behavior. This led him to study human history and sun's history, side-by-side, of past 250 years. He penned the book, in 1997-8 (?) and came out with startling predictions which turned out to be remarkably true.

The core prediction was about the rise of agitation, restlessness, aggression and terrorism in next decade; about the physical, earthly disasters we'd see from 2008-2017 along with political turmoil and violence. Studying the 'cosmic effects' of sun spots and sun storms on human mind and moods, he said back then that next decade would manifest extreme human behaviour which if not controlled will create havoc and crises. The bottom line is: if you can have control on your charged emotions, it turns into positivity - creativity, productivity, life, thought and civilization. He adds, "Make the hay while sun shines." Hence, extremism in behavior and outlook, is a major human problem everywhere.

When the attacks of 9/11 took place, intelligence agencies arrested Mr. Method and interrogated, "What you wrote in your book has turned out to be remarkably true. Maybe you are the master-mind behind these attacks." The author only had to say, "When i wrote the book (in '98) I also sent its copies to President Bill Clinton, PM Tony Blair and other heads of state urging them to show leadership to ensure peace." (These are not exact quotes as I am relying on memory.)

The book is written in a very acute scientific manner which is, nonetheless, highly readable by laymen. It is also punctuated by such sections on Sun's role in 'the choice of marriage and children', etc. It has useful advices for people from all walks of life from politicians to entrepreneurs It is very statistically and methodically written with case histories of events occurring in past 250 years both on sun and earth.


Sunspot cycles and timeline

Procrastination and Impatience

I came across this piece of research somewhere which shows a positive corelation between procrastination (laziness) and impatience. It means that both are to be found in a same person at a time.

I talked to a competent psychatrist about it and he noded in yes stating that one is the cause of the other and vice versa. Procrastination is destined to lead one to become impatient, irritated and haphazard. However, what are the causes of it? According to him, procrastination is caused due to following set of reasons:
1. Lack of priorities.
2. Abscence of time-frame in which to accomplish work.
Have these and you're prone to procrastinate. And when the time limit comes to near end, instantly one becomes active, so to say over-active, becoming impatient. Cure one, and you cure the other.

New Logo for ESEF

Elementary Society to Excel in Future - Pakistan - or ESEF is a welfare organization with taste for Islamic spirituality as well, run by elite Pakistani university students (almost all undergrad now), have developed a new logo of their own. I'm loving it.

ESEF, founded in 2008, works on the basic principle of networking effort to serve Pakistan and Muslim Ummah at large. Currently they're heavily engaged in guiding young students in career choices and doing welfare activities of all sorts. It will see growth on intellectual and practical fronts in future, God willing.

For now - the logo.

One Sinister Enemy of Learning: Fear

Cost/managerial accounting is a major business course which all students of management go through. It is taught by one of most established and expert teacher/scholar in Pakistan. It has reputation of being unaccessible to simple-minded people who lack intellectual rigor. I was afraid of it, thanks to word-of-mouth of seniors. But that's just an external excuse. It was my internal mistake (a cause) that made me nervous about it, as i had to think hard about this course. I enjoyed being in class and solving cases and problem as instructor was there, who was also very accessible to us and went to great length to answer our questions, no matter how stupid. Nonetheless, when it came to self-study, i often had problems breathing well. especially when i attempted to understand its intricate theory and frameworks and tried to apply it complex cases (which is very typical of case method). Data used to be huge and thinking/intellect had to deployed in platoons to tackle any topic in that course. That's why it was fearsome

However, final papers turned to be good due to organized dedicated, directed and group work: this gives us an insight into how to succeed in exams on last day - with a disciplined friend, we systematically chased each chapter and won over it being very consistent over a span of 12-14 hours.

To say the least, this is one of most valuable courses (especially its book) i've have took in business. For instance, one recent grad of my school of management working, although as non-accounting operations management told me how useful this book on managerial accounting had been on the production floor - each day he had to refer to it, literally.

It all came back the memory of it as flash back when i was browsing through SSRN.com and found a paper on Activity-Based Cost accounting, which is a hot field in managerial accounting these days. We studied it as well. . I quote the excerpt of the abstract to illustrate my point about uselessness of fear when it comes to learning:

[Excerpt] It is essential to understand that ABC is a method that tries to frame data in a managerial decision making context. Models, figures and theories only have value to the extent that they help us to understand and explain what happens in the company. ABC is an allocation method cum story: it is an arbitrary way to allocate costs - as arbitrary as any other allocation method - but it helps in communicating how the (production) process works and, therefore, tries to upgrade the value of accounting in the decision making process. If, e.g., a good driver is found and if there is statistical evidence that supports the choice of and/or work-floor feeling on such a driver, using this cost driver in the calculations of product (line) profitability makes the accounting much more vivid and important to decision making.

Mr. Van Schenkel, founder and owner of small company producing colour printed T-shirts, has some ideas on why multi-coloured T-shirts are more expensive in production than T-shirts with fewer colours printed on them. Process mapping and accounting data are available to set up an ABC system that will allow to test the validity of Mr. Van Schenkel's ideas and to come to better accounting calculations of product profitability.

You can see how the author is applying theory and making it practical. This is a simple demonstration of higher level of learning: experimentation, application = usefulness. Had been more fearless of the burden of reputation of the course and its demanding nature, i'd have turned out to be a better citizen. And i happy i have learned this insight.

See the example and you'll get just how useful the concepts of managerial accounting is for entrepreneurship, SME's and all kinds of organization. It should be all research (read: play) with all seriousness - I'm not denying pain at all, which is part and parcel of (higher) learning. nothing can help a too fearful and shy a learner in the path of getting useful knowledge. To say the least, one has to be fearless in outlook when s/he approaches knowledge. And habit of tinkering with stuff be encouraged. It's an engineer's attitude, that's why we trust them.

What are your comments?

Appearance and Reality: An astonishing recitation by Qari Antar

Please read translation with the recitation to purify and warm your hearts.

Dear Rushdie... (A Guest Post)

Copyright. Uni: Sniggers and Sniffles of a moron

(What follows is a response to Salman Rushdie's letter denigrating religious traditions answered by a Pakistani blogger, link to whose blog is given in start of the post. Italics text is Rushdie's words, green is by the Pakistani blogger, "Uni".)

***
Rushdie: Dear little Six - Billionth Living Person: As one of the newest members of a notoriously inquisitive species, it probably won't be too long before you start asking the two $64,000 questions with which the other 5,999,999,999 of us have been wrestling for some time.
How did we get here? And, now that we are here, how shall we live
?

Uni: Dear Rushdi. As one of the newest member of the notoriously sneering species, it is a pleasure to note that you at least admit that the whatever dollar questions remain unanswered - still being wrestled with.

Oddly - as if six billion of us weren't enough to be going on with - it will almost certainly be suggested to you that the answer to the question of origins requires you to believe in the existence of a further, invisible, innefable Being "somewhere up there", an omnipotent creature whom we poor limited creatures are unable even to perceive, much less to understand. That is, you will be strongly encouraged to imagine a heaven, with at least one god in residence.

Oddly, it has occured to you that we the inquisitive EXIST and all on our own... function and procreate, all on our own... the entire universe runs smoothly all on its own - down to the whole factory running within a single cell - all on its own. The fact that you're unable to percieve THIS little piece of clear logic, is what's beyond us poor creatures.

This sky god, it's said, made the universe by churning its matter in a giant pot. Or, he danced. Or, he vomited creation out of himself. Or, he simply called it into being, and lo, it Was. In some of the more interesting creation stories, the singly mighty sky god is subdivided into many lesser forces - junior dieties, avatars, gigantic metamorphic "ancestors" whose adventures create the landscape, or the whimsical, wanton, meddling, cruel pantheons of the great polytheisms, whose wild doings will convince you that the real engine of creation was lust; for infinite power, for too easily broken human bodies, for clouds of glory. But it's only fair to add that there are also stories which offer the message that the primary creative impulse was, and is, love.

Creation stories might be many - yes, but the truth is only one. If you're not convinced by it, cool. But this gives you no right to ridicule all the versions with a singlemindedness worthy of an award, really. You can't prove your theory, even if you're unconvinced by the opposing theory. There are far too many out there who (despite, not having seen it)... believe in God. And you don't find them ridiculing the opinions you hold.

Many of these stories will strike you extremely beautiful, and therefore seductive.

No. That's not the reason why we believe in them. Sorry. Wrong guess.

It is possible that they may at some point come to feel inescapable, not in the way that the truth is inescapable, but in the way that a jail is. They may at some point cease to feel like the texts in which human beings have tried to solve a great mystery, and feel, instead, like the pretexts for other properly anointed human beings to order you around. And it's true that human history is full of the public oppression wrought by the charioteers of the gods.
In the opinion of religious people, however, the private comfort that religion brings more than compensates for the evil done in its name.


Firstly, for people who do believe in God (with their hearts and minds) do not feel the truth to be like a jail, confining them. So wrong guess here again. And secondly, the teaching of human beings that led to this truth, wasn't forced upon us. Nobody pointed a gun at us to believe in God. And thus, the argument that they only did it to order us around, stands totally invalid. The fact is, that evil can take any excuse for committing evil. If religion is one such excuse, then the blame on religion itself is foolish. Go blame those particular people.

As human knowledge has grown, it has also become plain that every religious story ever told about how we got here is quite simply wrong. This, finally, is what all religions have in common. They didn't get it right. There was no celestial churning, no maker's dance, no vomiting of galaxies, no snake or kangaroo ancestors, no Valhalla, no Olympus, no six-day conjuring trick followed by a day of rest. Wrong, wrong, wrong.

Your opinion, your opinion, your opinion. We don't consider the creation process as wrong.

But here's something genuinly odd. The wrongness of the sacred tales hasn't lessened the zeal of the devout in the least. If anything, the sheer out-of-step zaniness of religion leads the religious to insist ever more stridently on the importance of blind faith.

It's not blind. As I said (and I'm a believer so I know what I'm saying), the decision is a sound one, made by the heart and mind. If you don't believe that, your problem.

As a result of this faith, by the way, lt has proved impossible, in many parts of the world, to prevent the human race's numbers from swelling alarmingly. Blame the overcrowded planet at least partly on the misguidedness of the races spiritual guides. In your own lifetime, you may witness the arrival of the nine billionth world citizen. (If too many people are being born as a result, in part, of religious strictures against birth control, then too many people are also dying because religious culture, by refusing to face the facts of human sexuality, also refuses to fight against sexually transmitted diseases.)

Weird it is, that you, not having had control of when to enter this world (did you decide your birthday hmm?), and not in control of when you'll leave this world... think it's prudent to think that we all have control over the population size of this planet?

There are those who say that the great wars of the new century will once again be wars of religion, jihads and crusades, as they were in the Middle Ages. I don't believe them, or not in the way they mean it. Take a look at the Muslim world, or rather the Islamist world, to use the word coined to describe Islam's present day "political arm". The divisions between its great powers (Afghanistan against Iran against Iraq against Saudi Arabia against Syria against Egypt) are what strike you most forcefully. There's very little resembling a common purpose. Even after the non-Islamic NATO fought a war for the Muslim Kosovan Albanians, the Muslim world was slow in coming forward with much needed humanitarian aid.

Oh you don't need to remind us about the ''efforts'' of the Muslim nations right now. They are deplorable. But we also know that it's the leaders of these states that are quite oblivious to events around them. Not the common man. If the common man were like this, there would be no flotilla towards Gaza .. knowing that Israeli forces aren't going to give them a red carpet welcome. And btw, the war b/w religions is already going on. And yes, ideology remains the key war instigator even now.

The real wars of religion are the wars religions unleash against ordinary citizens within their "sphere of influence." They are wars of the godly against the largely defenceless - American fundamentalists against pro-choice doctors, Iranian mullahs against their country's Jewish minority, Hindu fundamentalists in Bombay against that city's increasingly fearful Muslims.

If you're calling state laws as wars... then even more weird is that you didn't mention in this list of yours one very very important one... the policies of the state of Israel, the policies of India on Kashmiri Muslims... it's not only the godly who impose their laws. Secular governments do the same thing. If one opinion is unacceptable to you, doesn't mean you go about calling it war and then select a subset of state policies as examples. Puny indeed.

The victors in that war must not be the closed-minded, marching into battle with, as ever, God on their side. To choose unbelief is to choose mind over dogma, to trust in our humanity instead of all these dangerous divinities. So, how did we get here? Don't look for the answer in story books. Imperfect human knowledge may be a bumpy, pot-holed street, but it's the only road to wisdom worth taking. Virgil, who believed that the apiarist Aristaeus could spontaneously generate new bees from the rotting carcess of a cow, was closer to a truth about origins than all the revered old books.

To choose unbelief is your choice, we're open to believing in God, despite you thinking of it as being closed minded. Trusting in humanity can't go side by side with belief in God? Apparently, you haven't read much into history. Imperfect human knowledge was enlightened with scriptures, and this knowledge was the source of illumination for a great number of minds. And then you ask, how did we get here? Didn't you, in the beginning talk about this as a notoriously inquisitive display to ask these questions? Consistent, aren't you?

The ancient wisdoms are modern non-senses.

Live in your own time, use what we know and, as you grow up, perhaps the human race will finally grow up with you and put aside childish things. As the song says, "It's easy if you try."

As for mortality, the second great question - how to live? What is right action, and what wrong?- it comes down to your willingness to think for yourself. Only you can decide if you want to be handed down the law by priests, and accept that good and evil are somehow external to ourselves.

The blind wanderings and backtrackings of modern sciences is also a lot of claptrap, no worries. And sure, go ahead with this logical mode. Hand over the morality reigns to each and everybody's own individual self. So if a thief thinks its moral to steal (because he/she felt it inside that its okay!), then don't blame him. Sure.

To my mind, religion - even at its most sophisticated - essentially infantalizes our ethical selves by setting infallible moral Arbiters and irredeemably immoral Tempters above us; the eternal parents, good and bad, light and dark, of the supernatural realm.

To each, his or her own. We don't (and won't) mock your ideas. Follow what you will, but at least you shouldn't mock the things you don't agree with.

How, then, are we to make ethical choices without a divine rulebook or judge?

You're not supposed to. That's the thing, see.

Intellectual freedom, in European history, has mostly meant freedom from the restraints of the Church and not the state.

The Church men had made the laws that were suffocating mankind. Christianity had nothing to do with it. Even now, the lobbying for doing away with celibacy laws prove that the original teaching did NOT contain celibacy - nothing unnatural is ever promulgated in the main religions.

This is the battle Voltaire was fighting, and it's also what all six billion of us could do for ourselves, the revolution in which each of us could play our small, six-billionth part; once and for all we could refuse to allow priests, and the fictions on whose behalf they claim to speak, to be the policemen of our liberties and behavior. Once and for all we could put the stories back into the books, put the books back on the shelves, and see the world undogmatized and plain.

You mean, see the world in chaos and disorder. Even right now, the world's in disorder because of lack of belief in accountability (yes, even by those who CLAIM they're following religion and do heinous crimes - all acts of people who don't believe in God, Hereafter and Judgement).

Imagine there's no heaven, my dear Six-Billionth, and at once the sky's the limit.

Imagine a Just God, and imagine trying to follow His Teachings, being good to fellow humans and doing good in all spheres of life. The sky is certainly the limit.

Top 10 Sites I visit whenever I open Internet Explorer

It doesn't mean that I only use Internet Explorer, which I have to use when Chrome of FireFox don't work. It means - I asked myself what do i do everytime i use internet, i.e., what sites i almost always visit. This would help me become more self-conscious, maybe, of what I am now. Those who 'compete on the edge' live in today, (see Competing on the Edge, HBSP).

1. Gmail
Thou my GHQ, my runway, my shuttle, my launching pad to travel to Mars and beyond, my baby, my kabootar (pigeon), my post office, my railway, my aeroplane. Enough.

2. Google
For reference guide to anything of which i am ignorant except getting information on Islamic law and theology. What I cherish most about it is whenever i come across a new worthy author, Google makes me happy by allowing to delve deep into the bio of the author, although i can contain very erratic information uploaded by heinous beings. Recently it helped me understand better two very important Muslim (convert) scholars: John Ahmed Herlihy, whose Modern Man at the Crossroads, chapter # 2 on origins of man (scientific and religious critique of macro-evolution) i'm reading these days; and Sheikh Ragip Robert Frager al Jerrahi, an amazing psychologist who is also a sufi and his works integrate psychology (of west) and sufism. Both are very important authors who have written widely, who know modern world better than anyone but at the same are well-versed in modern science and traditional world-view of Islam and spirituality, as well. They deserve wide and intense readership, especially by modern young Muslim who faces the challenges of modernity to Tradition and religious world-view of Islam.

Apart from that, i browse it for pics for this blogs... And for fighter jet images, can't forget that.

3. ESEF: Elementary Society to Excel in Future (Estd. 2008)
ESEF is a non-political, yet not lacking political baseerat (insight/vision), social welfare and spiritual organization founded by high school (FSc, Pakistan) toppers back in 2008. It right now entertains young students seeking career counselling for undergrad education through its website and test preparation services (off-net). its students are very charitable who visit social welfare institutions in groups to get inspired, for they love service to mankind. Responding to flood crisis in Pakistan, they are raising funds and have volunteers on stand-by ready to be deployed with a given plan in any affected area, inshaAllah.
Old Website.
New Website.

4. SSRN
My academic love is flourishing with SSRN these days, may it never see a fall. Social Science Research Network, mashaAllah, is the best free research papers website covering (almost) all fields in social science, from public policy to management (all business fields covered) to philosophy and English literature, and what not. Perhaps more than 80% top research papers or cases are for free to view and download! Wholesale! Just register with an email and commence operation unbounded research!

5. Dr Asad Zaman's website
Its grace of God that I've discovered this man first in Intellect Magazine, which published his life-story from darkness (disbelief, atheism) to Nur Allah (light, Islam), and then i found him and his research work on net. Links to his websites are as follows:

6. InfoTrac-College.Com
With over 20 million articles in all subjects, this is a researcher's choice to be at. Access is not free for all, only with a password, often given freely with a "Thomson Learner's" text, can one log in and enjoy the spring of unlimited access to unlimited research topics, newspaper, journals and what not.
if you want access to it, just email at: i.umer.toor@gmail.com. i'll be very happy to share it with you :)

7. Youtube
Usually I consume it to enlighten my soul and intellect lectures by hamza yusuf, abdal hakim murad, Nuh Mim Keller, Islamic convert story (interesting research area for social scientists), tilawah, etc.

8. Hamza's Book Writing Effort: Astronomy for Teens
This haphazardly design site is dedicated to assist (hopefully) a 14-year old Pakistani student writing an introductory book on astronomy. News chapters are uploaded on it, and bibliography is being maintained. He deserves much attention and appreciation. You'll find his writing to be fluent and accurate, though with pardonable grammatical errors, for his knowledge of history and of science is quite up-to-date. He doesn't just memorize facts, which are crucial, but also entertains me with his hypothesis.

What he needs at this point is rigorous education in astronomy. He has just read Hawking's A Brief History of Time, but couldn't fully understand complex ideas. Secondly, we also needs directions on the content and form of the book. Astronomy professors would do it.

9. Masud.co.uk
Hosts almost all articles and links to the other works, audios, etc of Shaykh Abdal Hakim Murad (click to visit) and Shaykh Nuh Mim Keller.

10. Towards the Reign of 'Quality': Umer Toor's Blog
Only for you.

Thought of the Day

"Posssessors of knowledge and seekers of knowledge are the only two groups of any use to humanity."

- Muhammad (may God be pleased with him and bless)

How important, thus, it comes to know even the true nature of knowledge and to classify it.

Alpha and Omega: Why Muslims must excel in Scientific Research

Copyright/write - Dr. M. Zaman Khan,
Tranlsated (& notes) by, Yours Truly.


Many Pakistani professors, with the exception of few noble souls, follow this line of pattern: They come, they teach Western science, glorify it, make pupils memorize it, and then criticize their students of their impotence, as concluding remarks. However, rarely they are self-critical of the fact that they do very little research at their own, locally. If they do so, only then they can have the moral authority of criticizing young students about their lack of interest in scientific research. This matter of doing research locally is first and the last thing Pakistani and Muslim teachers and students should be aware of.

Why it is so? According to a Prophetic tradition of Prophet Muhammad (may peace be upon him), a non-believing man once came to him and challenged him a match of wrestling. He said he could beat ten persons at a time. Prophet accepted the challenge and beat him three times in a row. Impressed by his physical strength, the non-believer could not resist believing his religious message. Therefore, he accepted Islam.

The example illustrates that if you are impressed by one aspect or part of a person or a thing, you are also prone to be impressed by its whole. One reason for studying science and doing independent research lies in this psychological aspect of human being to preserve one’s own identity, world-view and civilization. If we go back it time and explore Muslim history, there was a time when Greek philosophy and sciences were encountered by Muslims. When Muslim youth experienced the brilliance of Greek science (mathematics, physics, etc.) they could not avoid taking Greek metaphysics and religious knowledge as sound as its physical sciences. It was a grave mistake from Islamic point of view. They could not decide what to take, and what to reject.

The very same problem is being encountered by contemporary Muslim youth getting education based on Western models and content. Today, as then, they study Western science and research, which is of top quality, and they cannot remain unimpressed by its vitality. But, they mistakenly consider that Western social sciences and their views on religion would be as accurate and sound as their physical sciences. Truth is that the results of their social sciences and views on religion have been disastrous for humanity, completely opposite to their success in physical sciences*. Their religious world-views need to be studied at all as a source of guidance by Muslim youth blessed with the gift of Islam.

Our future needs in science are not being met due a lack of interest in research. Due to this gap and inferiority complex generated by this very reason vis-à-vis Western science, we also observe that contemporary Muslim universities teaching non-religious sciences don’t value much their religious educational institutions. Having seen the importance of ‘innovation’, ‘change’ and ‘evolution’ in scientific theories and experimentation, they come to fancy that religion (i.e., of Islam) would be something similar to a laboratory experiment or a science text-book which needs to be updated regularly. Nothing can be farther from truth than this, due to the ‘eclipse of intellect and soul’, in words of Seyyed Hossein Nasr**.

To avoid this clash and to bridge this gap, it is indispensable to meet the need of scientific research in Muslim world. If this cannot be done, then it is safe to fear that our future generations cannot overcome the inferiority complex vis-à-vis west; and they may end up depriving themselves, and humanity, of treasures of religious knowledge of Islam and also a sense of Sacred, to which we owe our existence, which is supreme science.

________________________
* Prof. Dr. Asad Zaman, International Islamic University, has written a research paper discussing this very fact. He compares the tragic consequences of Western social sciences for humanity. See, The Origins of Western Social Science, Dr Asad Zaman available on his personal website: http://sites.google.com/site/asaduzaman. Seyyed Hossein Nasr, Ph.D. Harvard in history and philosophy of science, has also shown the tragic consequence of Western humanism for environment, see his book, Religion and the Order of the Nature, Suhail Academy, Lahore.

** For a refutation of this and similar modern mental fashions and erratic views on religion, see The Reign of Quantity; The Crisis of Modern World; East and West, by Rene Guenon, Islam and the Plight of Modern Man; Knowledge and Sacred; Islamic Life and Thought; Science, Civilization and Islam, by Dr. Seyyed Hossein Nasr.

SMS Conversation: History and Relgion, 'Policy Lessons' for Each Ego

Umer: One must have a basement in a house especially if he wants t0 launch a business. Shams and Nirwani, founders of Telezoo.com, invested $1 million in this start-up of theirs. To keep it low-cost in the beginning, the office of Telezoo was located in the basement of their home.

Bahawal: As far as the basement idea is concerned, I'd rather prefer to have an underground air-conditioned gym or a cozy library/study then 'waste' it for entrepreneurial purposes :-) :P

... We scholars usually don't like to talk much this money making business. Just give us a little respect, a bit of fame and acknowledgement and a few fat books to analyze. That's all you want. Lols...

Umer: (After critizing on fame part with a Urdu couplet, asks) And what books and articles are you reading these days?

Bahawal: Hmmm... I'm reading but haven't fully understood a book by Dr. Sayed Abdul Latif, The Mind that Al-Quran Builds. (Also) I'm reading a book History of the Saracens by Syed Ameer Ali. Then I'm also reading, History of the Arab Peoples. Apart from that, I've been reading some articles on internet on Babylonia, its culture, the city of Ur, etc. And, the major points of conflicts b/w the three Abrahamic religions, and the list goes on.

Umer: Please keep telling as long as you can comfortably. Its so informative foe me.

B: (Smiles, through a gesture) ... To sum up its been all history and religion (that I am studying). And, I realize that we need badly to turn back to Allah, repent asap, understand the balanced path, and start hating in ourselves what we hate in others. We stupid and idotic people have already cost ourselves a lot through petty egos and pathetically limited reserves of knowledge, which we assume to be too much but which actually is too little. What do you say?

U: Yar! Excellent analysis! That's what many top pious scholars (more or less) are saying! SubhanAllah! May Allah guide us to the right path and give us taufiq (power) to realize and act upon these useful insights.

B: May it be so! I wish we all see the right path.

Case Study Reading

Case method is often tough in management education than mere reading of text. Business cases (pages=4-30, usually, with exhibits attached) try to simulate complexity of real world situation in which a decision-maker, problem solver or let's just call it a "protagonist" finds him/herself.

Yesterday I had to spend atleast 2 hours just trying to understand 6 pages of (non-linear sections of a) 14-page case! 2 hours and just 6 pages! A case refuses to explain itself, says William Ellet, author of The Case Study Handbook. That's why I had to think about it, question every fact given, and hypothesize about the content which is not explained in the case. This was just problem analysis part which apart from such analytical/heuristic reading also requires specialized problem solving tools belonging to the fields of operations management, organizational behaiviour etc., to really decode the problems presented and arrive at evidence-based conclusions - what follows i more tought: discussion and writing about the case.

It was fun. The only thing required was patience, concentration, fearlessness and broad thinking and learning attitude. I hope such reading drills would help me become a case writer for which I read it.

Facebook: Consumer or Consumed?

Recently I made a dubious act of creating my friend's facebook account. I deactivated my own facebook account a year ago or so, out of utter frustation. I was frustrated with how much it consumed me, when i was supposed to consumer it. It was no good. I had to write two posts to debunk the myth of usefulness of it. But I failed it in a single phrase:: I consumes you...

This I experienced when i used a bit of his account to set it up. Soon an urge was sweeply mildly to get into this mass culture of verbosity, futility, empty socializing which is deviod of pure human-interaction, all of which backfires what facebook is for: connecting people. Surely, it helps one to find anyone. But that is only the beginning point beyond which it can never go. And 90% or more people are involved in absolute things even beyond non-essential, bordering on insanity (shooting people by pressing a button without even seeing him, clicking mouse 74 times in a minutes, and list never ends).

As far as the recent attack on FB from Islamic quarters and the counter-attack from modernized Pakistani media writing sentimental poetry about it, writing editorials (showing their ideological slavery to profane Western ideologies), etc., though mild - I wish to say only this: Priorities determine how you view this. Those whose live revolve around a person, their Prophet, whom they love above everything else, their priority is to defend their freedom to free their Beloved, their Supreme Asset from any insult. It went counter to the right of a (disturbing) civilization, and its perpeterators in East, to insult.

When I entered his account, I felt an urge, as I said, to come back to FB. To join the mass culture, in culture. And do away with my identity and my immediate enviornment. To shameless ads on left, right, top and bottom . . . I did not feel at home. This proves the point Shaykh Hamza Yusuf made about TV which fits 100% for FB: Those who leave it, ifthey find themselves wasting their time on it, their quality of life improves. And. They don't wish to use it again.

Evolution and Islam: A Talk with Dr. Seyyed Hossein Nasr

Courtesy: Green Sufi.

(I'm putting whole of the transcript which is very long only because of the high importance of the subject matter. Somewhere the words of the interviewer are mixed with Nasr's talk, I'll try to edit it later, doesn't matter much. - Thanks.)


On the question of biological origins
Seyyed Hossein Nasr

Keywords: Biological origins; Islamic perspectives on theory of evolution; Darwinism; life forms; Qur'anic view of life; Islamic philosophy and evolution; biology; Muslims and Western science.

**********

Bismi' Llahir-Rahmanir-Rahim (In the Name of Allah, the most Gracious, the Most Merciful).

Interviewer: There are two basic issues involved in the question of biological origins: the origin of life as such, and the special form of life that we call human life. In biological sciences, a huge amount of data has been gathered over the last two centuries which has been interpreted from various perspectives, the dominant view being the evolutionary process which stipulates that life originated in small-cell form and then became complex through random processes in which only the fittest forms survived. Some theists have inserted God into this process to develop a form of evolution which is often called theistic evolution. And there are a lot of Muslim scholars who also subscribe to this idea of theistic evolution. Of course no Muslim would say there is no Hand of God involved, but they put the Hand of God into a form of Darwinian process, generating a great deal of confusion.

Bismi'Llahir-Rahmanir-Rahim

Seyyed Hossein Nasr: There are few issues today as important for discussion and as insidious in its implications as this theory of evolution. First of all, let me say at the beginning that I have studied not only physics but also geology and paleontology at Harvard, and so it is with this background that I reject the ordinary understanding of the Darwinian theory of evolution even on scientific grounds. Let me say that at the very beginning before turning specifically to the Islamic point of view. The theory of evolution is the peg of the tent of modernism. And if it were to fall down, the whole tent would fall on top of the head of modernism. And therefore it is kept as an ideology and not as a scientific theory which has been proven. I know that this very statement that I make would be rejected by many people, but Muslims have at least to look upon this whole issue from this point of view.

There are different kinds of scientific theories. For example, you have string theory in physics and cosmology and you have quantum mechanics. Now if someone were to oppose them, no one would expel them from their university; no one would have his or her promotion denied because of his or her saying "I do not accept this theory." Evolution, on the contrary, is a totally different matter, because it is an ideology, it is not ordinary science; so if you are a professor of biology in a university, especially in the Anglo-Saxon world, less so in Italy, France, and Germany, and if you oppose the theory of evolution on purely scientific grounds, you are rejected and even ejected from your position, your colleagues think you are insane, you do not get promotions, and so on.

Muslims have to approach this whole issue in light of the status that evolutionary theory occupies in the modern world. And they have to look upon it both from that point of view and the point of view of its scientific claims to explain certain scientific phenomena. Now, I am not at all in agreement with a number of Muslim scholars, for whom I hold a lot of respect in other fields, in their having succumbed to this pressure and have developed what you might call an Islamic version of theistic evolutionism or evolution. This is first of all worse than the Darwinian idea of evolution because it is no longer scientific evolution; it is not even scientific and will not satisfy the agnostic or atheistic biologists. Secondly, it ties the Hands of God through a process that we believe we know, but we really do not know. And that is even worse. So Muslims have to look upon this issue from the point of view of our own spiritual and intellectual positions--from what the Qur'an and Hadith say, what our intellectual tradition has said. There are major issues involved here, which the modern mindset glosses over, leaving evolution as the only explanation of the scientific data.

One of them is the question of form and the finality of form. A triangle is a triangle, and nothing evolves into a triangle; until a triangle becomes a triangle, it is not a triangle. So if we have three loose lines that gradually meet, even if there is one micron of separation, that is not a triangle. Only a triangle is a triangle. And life forms also have a finality of their own. The famous French biologist L. Bounoure opposed evolution on the basis of this reality of the finality of forms as well as other considerations.

Now, the traditional idea of form (morphos) has lost its status in both Western philosophy and Western science. The only thing that survives is mathematical forms which themselves are abstracted forms. But concrete forms were thrown out of science by Galileo and Descartes. Once you quantify science and say that science is the quantified explanation of things, you can no longer deal with forms which deal with the quality of things. The form of an orange--you cannot study it in modern physics. In fact, what you do is to study the weight of the orange, its sphericity; or in chemistry the amount of acid in its juice, in biology its molecular structure. So what happened to the orange? You do not study that. So the first question is the question of form and what it means in relation to the theory of evolution.

Secondly it is the question of creativity and here we get into deep theological issues. In Islam, two of the Names of God are al-Hayy and al-Muhyi. God is both Life and the Giver of Life. And no one can go around that truth and say that God created the dinosaurs like this, but at the same time say that the dinosaurs were reduced by certain environmental conditions and that they developed later into this or that animal.

Let me repeat that God is both Life and the Giver of Life, and that for me is something very clear and true without being unscientific. First of all, life is not reducible to non-life. Secondly, God is also the source of all existence, whether alive or not alive, and for that reason also anything that exists cannot be reduced to non-existence by us. Matter can be turned into energy and energy into matter, and there might be black holes in the universe, but what we cannot do in a laboratory is to reduce something to nothing or nothing into something, because God is also al-Bari' and al-Khaliq and He is the Giver of Existence. Firstly God gives existence, and secondly being Himself Life, al-Hayy, and the Giver of life, al-Hayyat, He is the source and bestower of all life. In the same way no other power in the universe can bestow existence except the Source of existence. No other power in the universe can bestow life except the Source of life. And therefore we must reject from the Islamic point of view the accidentality of the origin of life.

There are three basic elements to consider: one, the destruction of forms in the ultimate sense; two, the reduction of causality to the horizontal plane--that is to say the denial of the Vertical Causality and therefore Divine Causality; and third, the horizontalization of the vertical chain of Being.

It is meaningless in modern science to say that forms of creatures exist in, you might say, the imaginal or subtle world, in the world above this material world and that at a particular moment in the history of the material cosmos they are crystallized--which is really what the Islamic point of view asserts--and they are crystallized in accordance to the Will of God and His knowledge and always in accordance with the conditions that God has set for a particular cosmos. That is why apple trees do not bear pears.

But that is not the same thing as evolution. In the same way when the spring rain comes, all of the seeds which are under that particular plot of land behind your house begin to come forth and give flowers. Now that is not the evolution of those seeds, except in a very different meaning of this term. It is like our evolution in the foetus in our mothers' wombs. That is, however, another meaning of evolution and not the transformation of one species into another; that is not what is happening. Rather the potentialities within the seeds in the soil are actualized. That kind of idea goes back to Augustine in the West and we have it in many Muslim thinkers. We have it in the cosmology of Ibn Sina and others have written about it. That is true, but that is not evolution, as understood in the Darwinian sense. In modern evolutionary theory, the vertical axis, which would explain why certain forms appear in the material world, has been horizontalized and therefore it is only through the matrix of time and matter that modern science understands the genesis of anything including living forms.

Interviewer: So, is there no possibility of any kind of evolutionary process which would transform one species into another?

Nasr: There is the possibility of micro-evolution, but not of macro-evolution. Now micro-evolution is still within the possibilities of the archetype or form of a particular being in the philosophical sense in the same way that you and I are human beings, and the Chinese and the Japanese are also human beings. Our eyes are one way; their eyes are another way. If we migrate to Zimbabwe, our skin grows darker; if we go to Sweden, it would grow a bit lighter. But we are all within the possibilities of the human form. That kind of micro-evolution is possible. Flies can become a bit bigger and when there is a certain kind of light, plants can do this and that, and this is mistaken by some for change of species. That is not change of species; that is "evolution" within a single species. Each species has a width, a range, a reality greater than a particular individual in that species. And so other individuals can appear in that species with other characteristics and even change according to environmental conditions, without one species becoming another.

As Muslim thinkers, you and I have to pay attention to all the critiques that have been made of evolutionary theory. And this is not only the religious or the theological. First of all it is the biological. There are many biologists, such as G. Sermonic and R. Fondi, the authors of the book Dopo Darwin in Italian, meaning "after Darwin", and many others such as G. Monastra also from Italy and many in France and Germany who believe that Darwinism has prevented biology from developing and that it does not accord with biological data, that what appears in the paleontological record is a revolution that takes place, not an evolution. Even if you do not want to talk about where new living forms come from you observe that species always appear suddenly and that is why they call this thesis in French la revolution organiciste, the organacistic revolution, if you want to translate it into English.

There are many biological critiques made of the theory of evolution by biologists who in the Anglo-Saxon world would usually have been ostracized and marginalized. This is true of a person such as Douglas Dewer, who was a member of the Harvard faculty. As soon as he began to write about the criticism of Darwinian evolution he had to publish his book in Tennessee, rather than in Cambridge, Massachusetts. I am referring especially to The Transformist Illusion, his famous book, and since then, two generations have passed and little has changed as far as biology departments in this country are concerned. Many others have written on this subject since then such as Michael Behe, the author of Darwin's Black Box and he is having difficulties with his colleagues at Lehigh University. A purely biological criticism can be made without denying micro-evolution, without denying adaptation of species to new ecological conditions without confusing a species with variants within that species. If you and I go to northern Canada among the Inuit either we adapt or we die, there is no doubt about that fact. It does not take great intelligence to understand that.

Secondly, there is the question of logical criticism. How could something greater come out of something lesser? This criticism is answered by modern biologists and most scientists in general by denying the greater, because it is qualitative; it is done through reductionism. By reducing the great prophets and saints as well as little mosquitoes to simply molecular structures evolutionists think that they do not have to talk about the greater coming out of the lesser. But if they think about it for a moment, how could the greatest works of literature, since we are speaking in the Western language, like Dante or Shakespeare, come out of a bowl of soup of molecules? They do not want to think about it in these terms, as though in a long stretch of time these molecules just happen to get together, and finally produce The Divine Comedy. But from the point of pure logic--and also taking into consideration the fact that logical formulae and logical concepts do not themselves evolve--there is a constancy in logic, both in mathematical logic and formal logic and one can make a logical criticism of the prevalent understanding of evolution based on reductionism.

Thirdly, the type of criticism that is very important is the theological, in the sense that the scientific worldview separates what it studies of the world of nature from all that is Divine and then considers this truncated reality to be the only reality. Now for the theologian or the man of religion or the philosopher of religion, there is no way that biology can destroy his view of Divine causality. There is no way that biology can disprove that there is "vertical causation". No theologian can deny that God said, let there be light and there was light, that He created birds, the whole phyla of birds. So the theologian can always criticize and critique the biological evolutionary point of view by pointing to the reality of the Divine Cause in the created order, and the fact that creative power belongs to God alone and not to matter as the Qur'an also makes clear.

It must be noted however that unfortunately many Western Christian theologians have already surrendered to evolutionary theory. Afraid that Christianity would be attacked by defenders of a materialistic and quantitative science, they have tried to devise all sorts of theories associated with what is called theistic evolution which, as I just said, is even worse than the purely biological theory of evolution, because that leaves the Hands of God out of His creation in a theological sense while claiming to believe in God, and if these theistic evolutionists do consider God's role, their views do not satisfy scientific evolutionists anyway. Muslim theologians must criticize not only biological evolution but also the Christian, and by that I mean the modernistic Christian theological understanding of biological evolution.

Fourthly, you have the question of mathematics, the mathematical critique of evolution, the critique that has already been made by a number of mathematicians including all these people who speak of intelligent design. Although they have been very much attacked by evolutionists, they have recourse to this mathematical argument: according to the mathematical theory of information, you can never get out of the box "A" more information than you put into it. That is a fundamental principle of information theory. Now a biological cell is in a sense like a little box in which information is contained. How can you then get more information out of it than you put into it? This is one of the most powerful scientific critiques of the biological theory of evolution.

But all of these arguments are going to be of no avail unless a very strong intellectual battle is carried out by those who are not afraid of not being given grants, of not getting promotions, not getting invited to conferences, and such things, because their criticisms go against what holds up the modern paradigm itself. What has to change is the modern paradigm. Once that changes, even with rigorous science, you can have a biology that is not evolutionary in the ordinary sense; a biology that accepts higher levels of being without denying the observable realities of life forms, that accepts vertical causality as well as horizontal causality, and that in fact would be much truer to the nature of things. Look how much we have to stretch the imagination to talk about the evolution of the eye, an example that has been often given. How absurd it is that gradually the molecules are rearranged in a blind being in the mud so that one moment it does not see and the next moment it sees!

We know how absurd that is, how much acceptance of absurdity evolutionary theory demands of us. The same is true of the growing of a wing to fly, and learning perfect flight, this kind of thing. We all know that but we all accept it today because anything else would have to have recourse to God, to an intelligent Creator. Rostand, the famous French biologist, once said, "I believe firmly--because I see no means of doing otherwise--that mammals come from lizards, and lizards from fish; but when I declare and I announce such a thing, I try not to avoid seeing its indigestible enormity and I prefer to leave vague the origin of these scandalous metamorphoses rather than add to their improbability that of a ludicrous interpretation" (Le Figaro Litteraire, April, 1957, trans. by W. Stoddart in T. Burckhardt, Mirror of the Intellect, Cambridge, U.K. 1987, p. 36). Yes, it is amazing to accept these absurdities, these unbelievable probabilities which I have mentioned. You know, someone has said that for one living cell to come into being, the probability would be the same as a monkey jumping on a typewriter and producing all the plays of Shakespeare. A lot of examples have been given. But people continue to believe in this absurdity, because if they do not, the modern worldview will collapse.

For the modern world, evolutionism is like a "religious" principle as it was particularly for Marxism. Marxism is based completely on what its followers call the scientific basis of historical evolution. Dialectical materialism was deeply influenced by Darwinism. Now Marxism is gone as a dogmatic theory and there are only a few Marxists around. The rest have become feminists, greens and so forth, but nevertheless, the philosophy it espoused is still to a large extent around, although it is no longer a major ideology claiming world domination.

As for the so-called liberal West, which was against Marxism, its whole worldview began with the idea of progress. The industrial growth--that at the same time produced the devastation of the natural world which we are now facing--is based on this now unbelievable idea of indefinite economic progress and the general progress of Western civilization. No serious thinker believes in progress anymore; only politicians do when they try to get votes, and claim that everything has to be progressing and expanding, getting bigger and bigger quantitatively through what is called development, meanwhile destroying the natural environment in the United States, Canada, and elsewhere. Modern societies are conditioned to continue on this path, making ever bigger cars, using ever greater energy and natural resources, and so forth. This idea is very deeply ingrained in the minds of ordinary modern people; it is usually done through education which is bound to the theory of evolution.

We are taught at school that there is the evolution of animal forms leading to human beings who themselves evolve through progress. Even today in most museums in the West, native people are displayed along with animals. I mean, if you go to the Museum of Natural History in New York, you see the mammoth and similar creatures and then native Americans. And then you have the advanced human beings whose works are demonstrated in the Metropolitan Museum across the park. I am sure that in Canada it is the same way. This all goes back to a kind of anthropology that then posits this naturalistic origin for the human being and then considers the white man who represents advancement and progress of humanity. One does not talk about this too much now as it was done in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries when it was widely held in the West where Western man was seen as the crown of this evolutionary development. According to this view Western civilization developed and evolved into a more admirable and advanced state than other civilizations, so that a Frenchman thought that he was more evolved than even a Bulgarian, since he was a western European, though they were both white and both Christian, not to speak of Asians or Africans. This widely held view propped up by the idea of evolution combined with progress is not by any means dead, as we observe in the persistence of racism in the West, and is not going to go away by just criticizing it intellectually. We have to understand its real nature and then criticize it intellectually as well as morally, for wherever this idea has gone it has destroyed the existing traditional structures of thought.

Look at India and what has happened there. We are very fortunate in the Islamic world as far as this question is concerned in that we do not as yet have a Hindu type of divinization of matter based on the theory of evolution and turned into a religious idea as we find in such a person as a Sri Aurobindo, or a Teilhard Chardin in Catholicism. People in the Islamic world who are evolutionists are not important and influential religious thinkers. I do not mean they do not have any impact or influence, but their influence is limited, confined especially to the Indo-Pakistani subcontinent where the British taught evolution in all the schools. Four fifths of Muslim evolutionists come from India and Pakistan. The Arabs and the Persians were protected to a large extent from this prevalent error by the language barrier, but of course there are also Arabs and Persians who believe in evolutionary theory, and also Turks.

Interviewer: Unfortunately, very few Muslims have Written on the subject of evolution from a scientific perspective. There are very few Works that one can find which present truly Islamic perspectives on modern biology as such. What is the reason in your opinion? Then we have Muslim biologists who have studied in the West, who can come up with explanation of data from Islamic perspectives, but they do not Write on the subject. What are the reasons in your opinion?

Nasr: Before answering you let me say a few words about the paleontological evidence that is usually marshalled to prove evolution. This record does not prove evolution at all. All of the skull shapes whose pictures are usually shown in the books of biology taught in schools to demonstrate the truth of evolutionary theory, from monkeys to intermediate states, to man and so on, nearly all of these skull sizes can be found among human beings in any large city, all of whom have two legs, and if they kill somebody they go to prison and are responsible before the law. They are variants of a single species. Somebody once said that in a big city like New York one can find all of those different size skulls seen in high school books of biology to demonstrate human evolution. A lot of the pictures and paintings used to demonstrate evolution are a hoax. Yes, 95% of our neurocells are similar to those of monkeys, but this does not prove anything. Arabs and Jews in Palestine and Israel have almost identical DNA, but they are two very different people and they are unfortunately fighting each other. Factors other than the DNA must be playing a role.

To reduce the human being to molecular structures, that itself is a great sin from the Islamic point of view. Not only for the human being, but also the falcon, the wolf, whatever it is, this reduction implies the destruction of the "form" (in the Aristotelian sense of morphos) of that creature, the "form" which at once defines that creature and reveals its essence. That is reductionism. The result of the differences in animal and plant forms now explained on the basis of cell structures could be also explained through the natural philosophy of Ibn Sina in a logical manner without recourse to cell structure and without denying what we learn from studying cell structures.

What the traditional Islamic thinkers said is that you have levels of existence of life forms starting with plant life, which is superceded by animal life through the creative power of God, while this animal life also includes plant life within itself. Moreover, plant life itself has many levels not caused by temporal evolution but by the descent of archetypes into the temporal order as is also true of animals. We know, for example, that we have vegetal nerves about which Ibn Sina speaks. In the animal realm we also have a hierarchy; many Muslim thinkers such as al-Biruni and Ibn Sina have written about this matter and have asserted that there are simple life forms and then ever more complicated life forms and that the complicated life forms contain within themselves the simpler life forms.

Obviously human beings have a more complicated life form than the monkey, but possess also some of those characteristics we see in the monkey, but this does not mean that we have evolved from the monkey. That is the whole problem. If you function in a universe of discourse where there is nothing but the material world as claimed by modern science, then there is no choice but to explain higher life forms as the evolution of lower forms and reducible ultimately to material aggregates. But if you live in a universe in which you accept the unique creative power of God, with which I began my discussion with you, then it is easy to accept that Divine creative power can create something including living forms, can bestow life, and can also endow human beings with the spirit.

In that universe this horizontal relationship between various creatures, from the inanimate to the plant to the animal and from the animal to man does not at all negate the archetypal reality of each of these beings in the higher world, and finally in the Knowledge of God. How can a Muslim deny the verse of the Qur'an which says that the entire cosmos is in the Hands of God? And if God does not know the ant in the metaphysical sense, because the ant has not essence to be known in a permanent manner but is simply part of the temporal flow and not the result of His creative act, how can He be God from an Islamic perspective? The Qur'an says so specifically, that God is the creator of all things and that the essence or spiritual reality (malakut) of everything is in God's Hand, and if you cannot accept the Qur'an, you cannot speak as a Muslim thinker. If God has knowledge of the ant, the ant must have a kind of archetypal reality in the "mind" of God, in the Divine Intellect. To say that there is no such creature whose essence is the reality of the ant, that the ant is simply a stage in evolutionary transformation, is to take a certain part of temporal sequence and call it an ant; before that it was something else and it will evolve into something else. The whole statement of God knowing His creation and having the spiritual reality of all things in His Hand becomes absurd. This is itself a very strong argument against evolutionism from the Islamic point of view.

There is another important matter which would require a separate essay to expound fully but which must nevertheless be mentioned here in passing. According to Islamic metaphysics, God is not only the Creator of the world but also its Sustainer and Nourisher. He has not only existentiated the world, but also re-creates the world and all the forms in it including living beings at every instant. If this ever renewed creative act, which is also the existentiating act, were to cease, the cosmos and everything in it would become nothing. What appears to us as objects existing in time is in reality the repetition of the Divine Kun at every instant. Therefore, relying solely on horizontal and temporal causes and neglecting the exitentiating Vertical Cause, which is beyond time, is to misunderstand the real nature of created beings and God's relation to His creation. Once one understands this basic truth, the whole question of evolution versus creationism as irreducible alternatives disappears.

Now to turn to your question as to why we have so few Muslims writing about these matters, this is a tragic consequence of our educational system. We train a lot of Muslims to become scientists and many become very good Western scientists, some being among top scientists, but they are not Islamic thinkers. They have had no education in Islamic thought. So they usually combine two things together: religious practice and piety, which their parents have taught them, and also because of their own good nature and faith which God has bestowed upon them, so that they pray and fast and so forth; and Western science that they have mastered through their education in Western or Western-styled schools. In the middle of that, what is missing, is traditional Islamic learning. For example, if you really master the doctrine of substantial motion (al-harakat al-jawhariyyah) of Mulla Sadra, the great sixteenth century Persian Islamic philosopher, you can explain the theory of evolution without being a Darwinian evolutionist. You can believe in both the archetypal realities in God's Knowledge that are reflected in temporal flow and the constant flow and motion of the substance of the material world which bear the imprints of those archetypes. When I was studying Islamic philosophy in Persia, I studied just this one idea of Mulla Sadra for a whole year: the trans-substantial movement in the cosmos. How can God know this flow? Will this not introduce change in God's Knowledge? We studied just that one idea for months after months. This is, needless to say, a complicated issue; it is not for children. We have few people in the Islamic world who can understand such deep theological and philosophical ideas and are, at the same time, good biologists or physicists, and that is a tragedy.

In any case, what we have to resist is this idea of following in the footsteps of Christian theology, which has surrendered itself more and more to evolutionary theories, which change every fifty years anyway. These days we have the theory of S. Jay Gould, of volcanic eruptions of species, and now some theologians are scrambling to bring out a Christian version of that idea. We should not follow that path. There are some Christian theologians who have not followed that path, traditional Orthodox and Catholic theologians especially as well as some Protestant theologians. We should remain faithful to authentic Islamic thought and provide an alternative worldview which remains honest and logical, which remains true to any finding of the microscope or of biology, but which does not surrender to the prevalent materialistic and reductionist worldview that is a truncated worldview, within which there is only one way to explain the diversity of life forms. If suddenly a fish grows wings and starts flying and a blind fish opens up its eyes and sees, and all kinds of things like that, we should not follow the path of providing logically absurd answers which also keep the Hand of God out of His creation. We should remember biological evolution is more miraculous than any miracle that is claimed by any religion for its founder or even for God. If you really think about it, and if you do not become in a sense metamorphosed, mesmerized, or paralyzed by the outward power of current scientific claims, if you really think clearly, you will reach that conclusion.

I was once attending a graduate class at Harvard in paleontology taught by one of the world's great experts on paleontology, and he kept presenting to us the paleontological evidence for evolution: the Cambrian, the Ordovician, and so on, but in each of these periods one saw the sudden appearance of all of these trilobites, other fossils, and in every case there was no continuity of stages of evolution of one form into another. So I asked him, "How is it, that in the Pre-Cambrian, you have practically no fossils in the world, and suddenly you have this explosion of fossils? These forms seem to appear suddenly as they do in other geological periods. He looked at me and said, "Hossein, we do not ask these questions anymore," which meant shut up, and then I said to myself, "Look, this is not for me. I do not care what the consequences will be for my academic success; my mind is made up to try to seek the causes of things!" This then is the evidence, the so-called paleontological evidence for evolution as claimed by classical Darwinism.

Paleontology does not support the theory of evolution as usually taught, and that is why some famous biologists such as R. Sheldrake and S. Jay Gould have proposed other ways for explaining the phenomena of the multiplicity of life forms on earth, departing from classical Darwinism but still calling it evolution although what they propose is based on a different understanding of this term. Their explanations and those of many other biologists are not evolution as it was so strongly defended by its proponents until yesterday. Sheldrake speaks of fields of resonance in relation to the appearance of species. Such a view in a sense is a return to what we believed traditionally, that is, that the forms of all things have a higher state of being and they become crystallized in this world at a particular moment. Moreover, for religious people this occurs according to what God has destined for a particular world, including ours and this does not contradict what is observed scientifically.

Interviewer: What could be the solution--we have talked about this before in a different context, in the context of technologies--but here I would like to focus on the biological origins, what could be done to clear things at least for Muslims? First, how can we have a critique of modern science in general, but specifically modern biology since we are talking about biology, and secondly, how can we make an effort that would bring together scientists and religious thinkers and produce a generation of Muslim thinkers who understand science and Islam in the sense in which you are talking about?

Nasr: That will not happen unless what is called science today is, first of all, mastered and then integrated into the Islamic worldview. Western science carries with it philosophical and ideological baggage of which most scientists are not aware, especially Muslim scientists, and that is the great problem. Science becomes scientism, as has happened not only in the West but also in so much of the Islamic world--and we have discussed this issue together. I think that scientism is one of the great illnesses of the Islamic world today.

Coming to the human state, let me start with this famous story: Once a person went to 'Ali, may Allah be pleased with him, and said, "Ya 'Ali, who was there before Adam?" And he said, "Adam". "But who was there before that Adam?" And he said, "Adam. And if you continue to ask me this question to the Day of Judgment, I shall continue to say Adam." This is a very profound saying. Now, the human being has been a human being since the first arrival of human beings in the world. They have not evolved from other beings whose bones bear similarities to theirs. You could go take the bones of a chimpanzee and put his bones next to my bones after I die and there will be similarities, obviously, but that does not mean that the human body has evolved on the basis of purely material factors from the chimp. There is obviously a discontinuity that reveals the manifestation of a higher level of being.

The human being, for example, has always done something special with its dead, as far back as we can go. The famous French anthropologist, J. Servier, an exceptional anthropologist, once wrote a book, L'Homme et l'invisible (meaning man and the invisible) wherein he showed, on purely anthropological and paleontological evidence, that the earliest human beings buried their dead or had some other ritual for the dead, which shows that they believed in immortality; they believed in another world and that means that in fact we have not evolved at all in a basic way. There is nothing unscientific about this, nothing that anyone can disprove. Yes, for example, we make better tools than some people on some island, from Sumatra or Borneo let us say, but so what? If you bring a son of that person to our school, he could make a computer, as we see just before us. It is not that they are different in nature from us; I think that the modern world has amply shown this truth. Differences involve the question of nurture, environment, culture and so forth. We are all human beings. Some are more intelligent, some less so. Different races have different characteristics. I am not a person to deny the reality of races. God has made us like that. Certain races have special gifts in different arts, like the Chinese in painting, like the Africans in dancing or like the Whites in poetry. There is no doubt that there are different races and within each race there is a gamut of degrees of goodness and intelligence (even though goodness is not a scientific category but intelligence is) and different conditions under which these different abilities have been nurtured and used. Some cultures created an advanced architecture and others did not. The ancient Egyptians produced remarkable architecture, but in Sudan, which is a neighbor, there are no pyramids.

Now all of this can be shown scientifically without denying that God created us and having to insist that man has evolved in any basic way. And it is with the creative acts of God that we Muslims must begin. 'Created' means that He created a body into which He breathed His Spirit, which means He bestowed upon us pure intelligence and consciousness among other things. The fact that we can think independent of material things is itself sufficient proof of our immortality no matter what behaviorism says. The fact that our consciousness can reflect upon itself, that we are conscious of being conscious is a characteristic given to us by God. We are conscious before we leave this world and shall be conscious after we leave this world. The human being has a type of consciousness which the animals do not have. We are conscious of our death as well as being born and the question of where we were before birth and where we will be after death. All of these things have to do with the particularity of the human state and although we have continuity with the rest of creation, we also have a discontinuity. The great paradox of the modern world is that modern Western science emphasized the continuity while modern Western culture has emphasized discontinuity, so much as to enable modern man to destroy much of the rest of creation in the name of human welfare. What a paradox!

This is the situation in which we live and I think Muslims--as I have always said in other contexts--have a tremendous responsibility, because we are one of the very few civilizations left in the world which are not Western, which have also had a vast scientific and intellectual tradition, and who can provide alternatives. Otherwise, where shall we be going? We are going to evolve ourselves into non-existence. Muslim thinkers must cling to the verities of the Qur'an and the Islamic intellectual tradition, master the modern sciences including biology as well as the Western criticisms of these sciences, and then provide an authentic Islamic interpretation of the data of these sciences without accepting the ideological basis of the interpretation of these data, this ideology being itself founded upon a specific philosophy that is not acceptable to genuine Islamic thought.

Interviewer: One more question. This question of creation and Adam and his children. One comes across Muslim thinkers who say that Adam evolved. With reference to the story in the Qur'an of Adam being in Jannah, they say Jannah was on this earth, and then they destroy the entire notion of hubut, and in terms of specific forms of human beings, the traditional understanding of Adam, all of this. What can you say to these modern interpretations within the Islamic world?

Nasr: This is sheer blasphemy, one of the worst kinds of blasphemy, because it deprives Muslims of their eschatological hope. The jannah described by God in the Qur'an does not look like the earth as we know it even if originally the earth was a paradise (that is something else) and even if, when God first created the earth, it was called the terrestrial paradise in Christian theology. Islam also sees creation in its virgin state as a reflection of Firdaws or the Garden which is also jannah but it was not the jannah itself to which the soul of those imbued with goodness will go in the afterlife. Furthermore, God first put man in jannah but He also gave him free will. That is why he ate of the forbidden tree and fell down (hubict), here on earth.

So our position here on earth is always going to be a state of fall from perfection. And other religions share this idea like us and assert that we have descended, not ascended. That is the foundation of all ethics. Without our idea of descending from a perfection, there is no foundation for ethics, philosophically speaking. Why should we then be ethical if there is no higher norm?

And so this is a crucial matter and the Qur'anic verses are extremely clear on this question. Anyone who identifies paradise with some place in Africa where Adam gradually evolved is guilty of the worst kind of heresy theologically speaking. Such people are not serious Muslims anymore. It is so explicit in the Qur'an that in speaking of the Garden where Adam was first placed it is describing a state of being which possesses a perfection that the fallen Adam no longer possessed. The word hubict is a Qur'anic term and one cannot change it to anything else. If one does that, there is nothing left of one's relationship with the Islamic tradition.

Hubut, they say, simply means to go from one place to another, without necessarily having any connotation of coming down, that is the Fall. They explain it etymologically and claim that the word itself does not contain the idea of the Fall, as the Qur'anic verse, "ihbitu misran ..." (2:61).

That is not correct and we cannot accept that for fourteen hundred years Muslims were wrong! And now, someone in the streets of Cairo, who has become totally Westernized, says that hubut does not mean fall! This is a form of scientism that has polluted our intellectual atmosphere wherein one can no longer breathe the air safely. Such people have contributed to a mental and intellectual pollution that prevents many people from being able to think clearly anymore in the same way that we cannot breathe easily in our big cities because of physical pollution. I think it is our duty, those who can, to state categorically what the traditional positions are. And that has been my vocation in life. I am not afraid of anybody, not afraid of demotion, or anything like that when I speak of matters that are against the fashions of the day. We have to state clearly what our position is. There is a great intellectual struggle that is going on within the Islamic world especially in the relation between religion and science and we have to do what we can to steer it in the right direction; and that is not a small matter. May God help us in this momentous task.

Jazaka'Llahu khayran.

This is the transcript of an interview with Professor Seyyed Hossein Nasr recorded in Edmonton, Canada on September 22, 2006. Seyyed Hossein Nasr is the University Professor of Islamic Studies at The George Washington University, Washington DC and President of the Foundation for Traditional Studies; Gelman Library 709R, 2130 H Street, NW, Washington DC 20052, USA. Email: zsirat@gwu.edu.

COPYRIGHT 2006 Center for Islam & Science.

The Seeds of Knolwedge

A Sufi Saint of twentieth century, Shaykh A. al-Alawi, writes:
Knowledge without any support to lean on may cause remoteness.
(Hikmatu-hu, 39.)

Martin Lings, who write the work on Shaykh Alawi, interprets this aphorism of the Shaykh referring it as the seed of knowledge, i like this term very much...

A Muslim View of the Rushdie Affair

A Muslim View of the Rushdie Affair

March 1989


1 Preliminaries

All praise is due to Allah alone, the Creator, Sustainer and Nourisher of the Worlds. I seek the protection of God from the mischief that is in my soul and the evil consequences of my deeds. Those whom God leads to guidance, none can lead astray; those whom God leads astray, none can guide. I bear witness that there is no God except Allah; He is One and has no partners. I bear witness that Muhammad is his slave and his messenger.

As a Muslim, my sole concern is to please my Creator. If my actions and beliefs please God, it matters not at all if the entire world condemns me. If I am disobedient to God, the praise and approval of the entire world gains me nothing. Why then should I seek to explain the behavior of myself and my fellow Muslims to a non-Muslim audience? My efforts are directed to removing obsta-cles to understanding Islam created by slanders and lies. After the last prophet Muhammed, this duty of conveying the message of our Creator to mankind has been assigned to all his followers .

Unfortunately, the task is enormous. Starting with the Crusades, and contin-uing through the era of Colonialism, a tremendous amount of grossly distorted or completely false information about Islam and Muslims has been taken as axiomatic in the West. The misunderstandings regarding Rushdie are but a trivial manifestation of the widespread ignorance (combined with fear and hate, in many cases) about Islam. For a good introduction to Islam written from a Western perspective, see Islam and the Destiny of Man by Charles Le Gai Eaton.

2 Freedom of Speech?

I and my fellow Muslims are perplexed at Western defence of Rushdie in terms of freedom speech. Muslim see the Westerners as acting in bad faith in this issue; freedom of speech is invoked where it suits them, and ignored when it does not. For example,
• The American press was, in general, mildly amused at the discomfiture of the British Government when they banned the book ‘Spycatcher’ by Peter Wright recently. There was no impassioned outrage at the restriction of free speech by Mrs. Thatcher (as opposed to the Ayatollah)

• When Jimmy (the Greek) Snyder uttered remarks offensive to blacks, he was dropped from all major TV networks, and has not been seen since. Presumably, he has suffered serious loss of income. No one has defended his right of free speech.

• A research center in Southern California responsible for propagating the idea that the Holocaust never happened, or else that the numbers involved have been exaggerated, was bombed and burned down. Death threat were made to the personnel. No national outrage at this denial of free speech was visible.

• Very recently, a Chicago art exhibit required people to step on the flag, apparently to properly view the exhibit. The Daughters of the American Revolution promptly came in with the requisite bomb threats. A rec-onciliation was reached by restricting the viewing of the exhibit. Again, the incident (and its relation to free speech and the Rushdie case) went unnoticed in national press.

• During the Nixon adminisitration, General Brown uttered remarks about the excessive influence exercised by Jews in America. This influence can easily be substantiated by reading the memoirs of Kissinger, Nixon, and the more controversial ‘They Dare to Speak Out’, by Senator Paul Find-lay. Ironic proof of his own statement was provided by the subsequent demotion of General Brown.
The list goes on and on, but the above should be sufficient as a sampler. The point is that Muslims regard invocations of freedom of speech as merely a pretext by Westerners to freely heap insults on Muslims and Islam.

We take the view that just as my freedom to move my arm is restricted by your nose, freedom of speech is restricted by the need to avoid damage to society. Libel laws protect individuals from verbal attacks which hold them up to ‘ridicule, hatred, or contempt’. The concept of banning the book (or removing its offensive portions) to prevent this libel is not as ‘alien’ to Western principles as Westerners claim. Indeed, a previous book by Rushdie, which made false allegations about Mrs. Gandhi, was successfully sued and subsequently edited to remove the offensive portions. Again no complaints were registered regarding Rushdie’s right to freely insult Mrs. Gandhi. How then does Rushdie have the right to freely insult deeply the approximately one billion Muslims of the world? In my view, an appropriate resolution to this problem would be for Rushdie to revise and eliminate the sections offensive to the Muslims, showing us the same courtesy shown to Mrs. Gandhi.

3 Who is the Terrorist?

From the strong horrified reactions to Khomeini’s death sentence, one would think that such behavior is unknown in the West. Nobody was horrified about Ronald Reagan’s attempted assassination of Muammar Khaddafi, which suc-ceeded only in killing his adopted child. The murder of a PLO official in his bedroom in Tunis by Isreali commandos did not inspire horrified comments. In both cases, Westerners feel that the murdered men were terrorists and de-served to die, and legal niceties are not relevant. They take upon themselves the ‘White man’s burden’ of trying, judging, and executing these men, but don’t feel anybody of a different race can take similar liberties.

Westerners see Khomeini as a terrorist, while they regard Rushdie as an innocent. In fact, the terrorist in this affair is really Rushdie, and not Khomeini. Whereas nobody has been killed (yet) as a consequence of Khomeini’s edict, well over fifty people have been killed in riots in India and Pakistan directly caused by publication of ‘Satanic Verses’.

Should Rushdie be held responsible for the rioting and deaths that have occured in response to the publication of his book? There is ample evidence (supported by Rushdie’s own comments from his interview on Nightline) to suggest that the book is deliberately provocative. Exactly like the producers of ‘The Last Temptation’, he and Penguin Press counted on such adverse reaction to boost sales.

Let us however, give Rushdie the benefit of the doubt. Suppose that he was indeed surprised by the rioting and deaths that occurred in India and Pakistan, in the violent reaction over his book. How then can we explain his appeal to Rajiv Gandhi to lift the ban on his book, and move towards making India a ‘less repressive society?’ Even a casual observer should realize that if the publication of the book in America caused over 50 deaths in riots, there would be considerably greater violence if it was actually published in India. My own estimate is the number of deaths would range in thousands if we are lucky, and could easily reach the hundred thousand level.

What kind of man is willing to let so many die, for personal motives? Rushdie has a tremendous hatred for Muslims2. Those who are unyielding in their sup-port of Rushdie are also unmoved by the numerous deaths of Muslims. We should remember that the Holocaust was caused by the great hatred of one man for Jews combined with the indifference of many to deaths of Jews.

Many Americans incorrectly categorize Rushdie along with Scopes as being persecuted for expressing his beliefs, which are contrary to religious dogma. Thus they feel the Muslims ‘should read the book before condemning it’, or else, simply ‘not read it if they find it offensive’ etc. It must be emphasized that Rushdie is not expressing a point of view, or a belief. Fantasizing about our Prophet and his companions in demeaning situations (completely out of the boundaries of historical probability), and using derogatory and pornographic language, is insulting to us, regardless of the context (i.e. within a dream) in which this occurs. We do not feel it is appropriate for Westerners to dictate to us what we should or should not find offensive. The correct analogy regarding Rushdie is not Scopes, but for example, trashy pornography regarding the Virgin Mary and Jesus.

4 Should Rushdie be Killed?

Because of deep insults to our religion contained in Rushdie’s book, many Mus-lims are so outraged that they wish to kill him. The teaching of Islam is that in this and all matters, we must surrender our wills to the will of Allah. Thus the question of whether or not Rushdie should be killed becomes, for the Mus-lim, strictly a question of Islamic Law. When we look for precedents, we find examples of all kinds. When during the reign of Omar (the second Caliph in Islamic History), a Christian was slapped by a Muslim for uttering insults about Mohammed, the Christian took the case to court! The ruling went against him, in that the Qazi (Judge) found that civil liberties did not include the right to insult Mohammed, but no penalties were imposed. In Muslim Spain, there was a period during which Christians would come in, publicly abuse the Prophet, be executed, and thereby achieve martyrdom. Eventually Muslims negotiated with the Church to prevent this nuisance. The Church then revoked the status of ‘martyrdom’ for those executed for the abuse of Muhammed, and this stopped.

Why should abuse of the Prophet be punishable by death? Exactly as the Rosenbergs (who may have been innocent) were executed for the crime of treason to the state, so treason to Islam is punishable by death. Rushdie’s case vis-a-vis Islamic law is complicated by the fact that he is a citizen of Britain, a non-Muslim country which has diplomatic relations with Muslim countries. In complex situations, scholars of Islamic law issue rulings (called fatwa’s) which give their opinion regarding the matter. The completely misunderstood ‘death sentence’ of Khomeini, is no more or less than a scholarly finding that ‘Islamic Law sanctions death penalty for Rushdie’; scholars at Al Azhar University in Cairo have issued an opposite ruling. Khomeini did not, contrary to popular impression, put a price on Rushdie’s head (this was done by private citizens in Iran). He did not, unlike Reagan or the Israelis, send out a commando team to execute Rushdie. Surely Khomeini’s freedom of speech, which may result in the death of one man, is as valuable as Rushdie’s, which has already resulted in deaths of over 50. Finally, it must be clarified that his sentence is not binding on Muslims. If by strange happenstance, Rushdie were to enter Iran, he would not be killed on the spot. Rather, he would be tried in an Islamic court. The judge would (probably) take into consideration Khomeini’s fatwa, but may well call for other fatwas from other experts. Incidentally, Khomeini is not, as some have suggested, the worlds greatest authority on Islam. There are many scholars of greater eminence. Khomeini is merely the one best known to the West for obvious reasons.

5 Love of the Prophet

The key to understanding Muslim reactions to Rushdie is the love that all Muslims have for the prophet Mohammed. This and similar statements are routinely misinterpreted by Westerners to be expressions of piety or theological dogma. While the commandments to ‘love God’ and to ‘love our neighbors’ are more remote, love of our Prophet is a concrete reality in the lives of Muslims. One aspect of this love is demonstrated in the following of Sunnah, or the way of the Prophet. The Sunnah includes all aspects, even seemingly trivial ones, of the Prophet’s behavior.

I despair of conveying the nature of our love for the Prophet to a non-Muslim audience. Both in terms of its intensity and its universality among Muslims, it is a phenomenon outside the range of Western experience. It is this love which binds Muslims of different races, cultures, and social status. Odes to the Prophet constitute a special genre of poetry in Muslim languages, and good ones are capable of moving large audiences to tears.

Perhaps it would be more effective to illustrate the kind of effect that the Rushdie book has had on lives of ordinary Muslims. On the eve of the demon-stration in Manhattan against ‘Satanic Verses’, we received a call from an elderly Muslim lady, urging us to go. When she heard of our distaste for demonstra-tions, she began weeping. Her sentiments were ‘that our Prophet should be so insulted in public, and that no one should speak on his behalf, or come to his defence, this is unbearable’. Out of deference to the lady’s tears, I went to the demonstration, which was attended by about ten thousand Muslims. In another incident, I attended a meeting of Muslims to discuss responses to the Rushdie affair. One hotheaded youth was infuriated by our ‘lukewarm’ discus-sion regarding pamphlets, talks, demonstrations, etc. He challenged us, “ Are you cowards or men? That our mothers be called prostitutes, and we should sit on our hands and look the other way?”. It took great effort by the rest of us to persuade him Islam teaches us restraint, and we must obey Allah and not act on our baser impulses. Yet another index of Muslim feelings about this matter is in the (private) responses of the large immigrant Muslim population. Many have had deep regrets, and second thoughts about their decision to settle here, given the obvious hostility to Islam, Islamic values, and Muslims displayed by the Western response on this issue. I have no doubt that among the many Muslims I know who have been toying with the idea of going back, some will be spurred into action as a consequence of this event.

Who was Mohammed, and why does he inspire such affection? We have a wealth of detailed information about his life. Over the short span of twenty three years, he changed the course of history. His achievement was the transformation of a semi-barbaric culture to sublime heights of civilization Our Prophet (and all prophets, including Abraham, Moses, and Jesus) personified the most excel-lent character achievable, and taught us by word and deed how to achieve this ideal. He was compassionate, gentle, soft-spoken, and humble. Until his death he lived a life of great austerity, even though Muslims became quite affluent following political successes. He never turned down a request for assistance, to the extent of giving up the shirt on his back, or his only meal for the day.

6 Closing Prayer

When the prophet Abraham (may Allah shower his blessings upon him) refused to renounce his faith in one God and his opposition to idol worship, King Nimrod had him thrown in a huge fire. God ordered the fire to be cool, and it did not burn Abraham. This story, like all others reported in the Quran, are taken literally as historical events by all Muslims.

A Sufi parable (not to be taken literally) relates the story of a bird attempting to put the fire out using drops of water carried in its beak. The bird explains that its efforts are directed towards God; it does not wish to be accused of standing by idly, while a beloved prophet of God was burning.

I feel much like the bird. I pray that God will accept my efforts, and forgive my errors. I pray that he may heal the rifts between us. I pray that he may lead us all to the love of God, from which springs the love of all creation. All praise is for Allah, the Merciful and the Compassionate.

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